Biology standards and the eoc
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Biology standards and the eoc

Biology Standards and the EOC


Florida education next generation strategic plan

Florida Education Next Generation Strategic Plan

Mission:

  • Increase the proficiency of all students within one seamless, efficient system, by providing them with the opportunity to expand their knowledge and skills through learning opportunities and research valued by students, parents, and communities, and to maintain an accountability system that measures student progress toward the following goals: Highest student achievement

  • Seamless articulation and maximum access

  • Skilled workforce and economic development

  • Quality efficient services

    Vision:

  • The Florida Department of Education is committed to changing the culture of our schools from PreK to postsecondary by raising the ceiling and raising the floor to better enable our students for success in the 21st century.


Biology standards and the eoc

3


Key processes for meeting the needs of all students

Key Processes for meeting the needs of ALL students:

Unwrapping the Standards/Benchmarks

Understanding the EOC test item specifications


Where can we begin

Where Can We Begin?

Ensure that teachers have a thorough understanding of standards and benchmarks as well as an understanding of how students will be assessed on summative assessments

Ensure that the lessons align to the complexity of the benchmarks, paying special attention to what the students will be expected to do on summative assessments

Ensure that all benchmarks are adequately addressed within the current scope and sequence and/or district/school pacing guide. Augment pacing guide to include any absent benchmarks.


Next generation standards

Next Generation Standards

Today we will:

Take a closer look at the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Biology EOC Test Specifications.

Discuss how the NGSSS relate to instruction and the EOC exam.

Discuss strategies for teaching that hit the NGSSS “target”.


Biology standards and the eoc

Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?"

"That depends a good deal on where you want to get to," said the Cat.

"I don't much care where—" said Alice.

"Then it doesn't matter which way you go," said the Cat.

Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Always Begin with the End in Mind!

Biology End of Course Exam


Biology standards and the eoc

Where do we go to understand the benchmarks?

1. Standards Database

http://www.floridastandards.org/homepage/index.aspx

  • Launched in January 2008

  • Includes the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards and access points.

  • Includes the revised course descriptions and their relation to benchmarks.

  • Includes glossaries and downloadable reports.

  • Will include instructional resources.

  • Provide external access to other sites via web services.


Biology standards and the eoc

WHERE DO WE GO TO UNDERSTAND THE BENCHMARKS?

2. EOC Test Item Specifications

http://fcat.fldoe.org/eoc/itemspecs.asp


Biology standards and the eoc

WHERE DO WE GO TO UNDERSTAND THE BENCHMARKS?

3. EOC Test Item Specifications

Appendix B


What s here

What’s here?

http://www.floridastandards.org/homepage/index.aspx


Biology standards and the eoc

Browsing for a specific benchmark


Biology standards and the eoc

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


Biology standards and the eoc

Related Resources


Webb s depth of knowledge dok

Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK)

  • Webb’s DOK is a descriptive hierarchy that focuses on complexity, one aspect of rigor.

  • Each of the four Webb’s DOK levels describe the progression of rigor that is being taught and learned.

    • DOK 1 Recall and Reproduction

    • DOK 2 Skills and Concepts/Basic Reasoning

    • DOK 3 Strategic Thinking/Complex Reasoning

    • DOK 4 Extended Thinking/Reasoning


Levels of cognitive complexity

Levels of Cognitive Complexity

  • Florida used Webb’s DOK/Cognitive Complexity Levels to align the cognitive demands of SSS to FCAT test items.

    Low Complexity – Recall and recognition

    Moderate Complexity – Flexible thinking and choice

    High Complexity – Abstract reasoning and planning


Low complexity

Low Complexity

DOK Level 1

Science low-complexity test items rely heavily on the recall and recognition or previously learned concepts and principles. Test items typically specify what the student is to do, which often is to carry out some procedure that can be performed mechanically. It is not left to the student to come up with an original method or solution.


Biology standards and the eoc

Which of the following organisms is a consumer in this food web?


Biology standards and the eoc

Moderate Complexity

DOK Level 2

Science moderate-complexity test items involve more flexible thinking than low-complexity test items do. They require a response that goes beyond the habitual, is not specified, and ordinarily involves more than a single step or thought process. The student is expected to decide what to do—using informal methods of reasoning and problem-solving strategies—and to bring together skill and knowledge from various domains.


High complexity

High Complexity

DOK Level 3

Science high-complexity test items make heavy demands on student thinking. Students must engage in abstract reasoning, planning, analysis, judgment, and creative thought. The test items require the student to think in an abstract and sophisticated way, often involving multiple steps.


Related access points

Related Access Points


Keeping the end in mind assessment

Summative

What are my students expected to know, understand, and do on national, state, and districtcommon assessments?

SAT, ACT, Advanced Placement Exams, etc

FCAT, End-of-Course Exams, etc.

Quarter Benchmarks, Semester Exams, etc.

Formative

What are my students expected to know, understand, and do on school common assessments and teacher created or selectedassessments?

Topic Quizzes, Unit Tests, etc.

quizzes, tests, presentations, projects, participation, etc.

Keeping the end in mind…ASSESSMENT


Eoc guidelines what we know about the test

EOC Guidelines…(What we know about the test!)

  • Each test item should be written to measure primarily one benchmark.

  • Some benchmarks are combined for assessment, and the individual specification indicates which benchmarks are combined.

  • Test items should be appropriate for students in terms of course content experience and difficulty, cognitive development, and reading level. The reading level of the test items should be Grade 9, except for science terms or concepts specifically addressed in the benchmarks.

  • Test items should be written to the cognitive level of the benchmark unless otherwise noted in the individual specifications sections.

  • Test items should assess the application of the concept rather than the memorization of science fact, law, or theory unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications.


Guidelines continued

Guidelines (continued)

  • Test items will not require the student to define terms.

  • Test items that include a collection of data should require the student to analyze or interpret that data

  • Test items will not require the creation of a chart, graph, or table.

  • Biology 1 EOC Assessment items should not require use of a calculator.

  • Test items may require the student to apply knowledge of the science concepts described in the prior knowledge benchmarks from lower grades; however, that knowledge should NOT be assessed in isolation.

  • Test items will not require the memorization of equations or formulas unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. A reference sheet is not provided to students.

  • Test items will not require memorization of the Periodic Table. A periodic table is provided to the students and is also found in Appendix D.


Item contexts scenarios

Item Contexts (Scenarios)

  • The context in which a test item is presented is called the item context or scenario. Test items should be placed in a context.

  • The item context should be designed to interest Biology 1 students. Scenarios should be appropriate for students in terms of Biology 1 content experience and difficulty, cognitive development, and reading level.

  • The context should be directly related to the question asked. The context should lead the student cognitively to the question. Every effort should be made to keep test items as concise as possible without losing cognitive flow or missing the overall idea or concept.

  • Biology 1 EOC Assessment scenarios are limited to those familiar to a Biology 1 student rather than global situations.

  • Item contexts should not refer to students using textbooks or the Internet as resources. Item contexts should focus on the students engaging in science learning rather than reading about science. Item contexts should avoid using a simple classroom scenario.

  • Item contexts and illustrations depicting individuals conducting laboratory investigations should include proper safety equipment and model safe laboratory procedures.

  • Scenarios describing scientific investigations should model current science methodology and adhere to the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair Rules and Guidelines unless otherwise noted in the benchmark clarification statements.

  • The item content should be timely but not likely to become dated.


Biology standards and the eoc

Understanding

by

Unwrapping


Biology standards and the eoc

UNWRAPPING THE BENCHMARKS

Both SC.912.L.14.3 and SC.912.L.14.2 will be assessed together.


Biology standards and the eoc

SC.6.L.14.3 Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing.

SC.6.L.14.4 Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles.

Body of Knowledge: Life Science

Big Idea: Organization and Development of Living Organisms -

A. All living things share certain characteristics.

B. The scientific theory of cells, also called cell theory, is a fundamental organizing principle of life on Earth.

C. Life can be organized in a functional and structural hierarchy.

D. Life is maintained by various physiological functions essential for growth, reproduction, and homeostasis.


Science ngsss across the grades

Science NGSSS Across the Grades


Biology standards and the eoc

Benchmark:

SC.912.L.14.2 Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animal cells. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (passive and active transport).

  • LEARNING OUTCOMES:

  • CONCEPTS:

  • What the students need to KNOW:

  • 1. Plant and animal cells share manyof the same types of organelles both have organelles specific to their functions

  • 2. The cell membrane is a barrier that separates a cell from external environment

  • 3. Materials move across membranes because of concentration differences

  • 4. Cells use energy to transport materials that cannot diffuse across a membrane


Biology standards and the eoc

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

SKILLS:

What the students need to BE ABLE TO DO:

Compare and contrast structures of plant and animal cells.

Compare and contrast structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Relate structure to function for components of plant and animal cells.

Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier.

VOCABULARY:

Cell membrane

Selective permeability

Passive transport

Diffusion

Concentration gradient

Osmosis

Isotonic

Hypotonic

Hypertonic

Facilitated diffusion

Active transport

Endocytosis

Phagocytosis

Exocytosis


Biology standards and the eoc

Moderate Complexity

Skills required to respond to moderate complexity items include:

  • Specify and explain the relationship between facts, terms, properties, or variables

  • Describe and explain examples and non-examples of science concepts

  • Select a procedure according to specified criteria and perform it

  • Formulate a routine problem given data and conditions

  • Organize, represent, and compare data

  • Make a decision as to how to approach the problem

  • Classify, organize, or estimate

  • Compare data

  • Make observations

  • Interpret information from a simple graph

  • Collect and display data

  • Make comparisons

  • Organize, represent, and interpret data.


Biology standards and the eoc

Essential Questions:

What is the structure of the cell membrane?

What is the role of the cell membrane during active and passive transport?

ASSESSMENT

Transport proteins play a role in both

A. passive and active transport.

B. exocytosis and endocytosis.

C. diffusion and vesicle transport.

D. phagocytosis and passive transport.


Biology standards and the eoc

ASSESSMENT

Sodium ions are "pumped" from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration in the nerve cells of humans. This process is an example ofA. diffusion

B. passive transport

C. osmosis

D. active transport

Water enters a cell when the solution surrounding the cell is

A. concentrated.

B. hypotonic to the cell.

C. weak.

D. hypertonic to the cell.


Biology standards and the eoc

Normally, in the process of osmosis, the net flow of water molecules into or out of the cell depends upon differences in the

A. concentration of water molecules inside and outside the cell

B. concentration of enzymes on either side of the cell membrane

C. rate of molecular motion on either side of the cell membrane

D. rate of movement of insoluble molecules inside the cell

  • In an attempt to replenish the body fluids, a patient (who has had a serious hemorrhage) accidentally receives a large transfusion of distilled water directly into one of his veins. This would probably .....

  • have no unfavorable effect as long as the water was sterile

  • B have serious, perhaps fatal effects because there would be too much fluid for the heart to pump.

  • have serious, perhaps fatal effects because the red blood cells would tend to shrivel

  • have serious, perhaps fatal effects because the red blood cells would tend to burst


Biology standards and the eoc

  • You observe plant cells under a microscope that have just been placed in an unknown solution. First the cells plasmolyze; after a few minutes, the plasmolysis reverses and the cells appear normal. What would you conclude about the unknown solute?

  • It is hypertonic to the plant cells, and its solute cannot cross the plant cell membranes.

  • It is hypotonic to the plant cells, and its solute cannot cross the plant cell membranes.

  • C. It is isotonic to the plant cells, but its solute can cross the plant cell membranes.

  • D. It is hypertonic to the plant cells, but its solute can cross the plant cell membranes.

  • E. It is hypotonic to the plant cells, but its solute can cross the plant cell membranes.


Biology standards and the eoc

Facilitated diffusion across a cellular membrane requires ________ and moves a solute __________ its concentration gradient.

A. energy and transport proteins………down

B. energy and transport proteins………up (against)

C. energy………up

D. transport proteins…………down

E. transport proteins…………up

Watering a houseplant with too concentrated a solution of fertilizer can result in wilting because

A. the uptake of ions into plant cells makes the cells hypertonic.

B. the soil solution becomes hypertonic, causing the cells to lose water.

C. the plant will grow faster than it can transport water and maintain proper water balance.

D. diffusion down the electrochemical gradient will cause a disruption of membrane potential and accompanying loss of water.

E. the plant will suffer fertilizer burn due to a caustic soil solution.


Biology standards and the eoc

Which of the following is NOT true of the carrier molecules involved in facilitated diffusion?

a. They increase the speed of transport across a membrane.

b. They can concentrate solute molecules on one side of the membrane.

c. They may have specific binding sites for the molecules they transport.

d. They may undergo a conformational change upon binding of solute.

e. They may be inhibited by molecules that resemble the solute to which they normally bind.

A freshwater Paramecium is placed into salt water. Which of the following events would occur?

a. an increase in the action of its contractile vacuole.

b. swelling of the cell until it becomes turgid.

c. swelling of the cell until it lyses.

d. shriveling of the cell.

e. diffusion of salt ions out of the cell.


Biology standards and the eoc

A small lipid-soluble molecules passes easily through the plasma membrane. Which of these statements is the most likely explanation?

A. A carrier protein must be at work.

B. The plasma membrane is partially composed of lipid molecules.

C. The cell is expending energy to do this.

D. Phagocytosis has enclosed this molecule in a vacuole.

  • Complete the diagram on the left to describe the effect of tonicity on red blood cells.

  • Complete the diagram on the right to describe the effect of tonicity on plant cells.


Biology standards and the eoc

  • A laboratory assistant prepared solutions of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D.

  • Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions.

  • Include in your answer the following points and clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.

  • a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment;

  • the results you would expect from your experiment;

  • (c) an explanation of those results based on the principles involved.


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Biology standards and the eoc

SC.912.L.14.2

Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animal cells. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (passive and active transport).

ENGAGE:

  • Cut one shape out of each potato slice using the cookie cutter.

  • Half fill each of the cups with distilled water. Stir 2 teaspoons of salt into one of the cups of water.

  • Place one potato shape in each of the cups. Wait 10 - 20 minutes.

  • Remove the potato slices from the cups and try to reinsert the potato slices back into the potato section from which they were cut.


Biology standards and the eoc

CHAPTER INVESTIGATION—DESIGN YOUR OWN

CHAPTER 3

Diffusion Across a Membrane


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