Criminal justice
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Criminal Justice. Four components to the system. Legislative-some examples… Felon voter right: Restored when no longer under DOC supervision-State. Fairness in Cocaine Sentencing Act Federal legislation to eliminate disparity in sentencing of crack vs. powder cocaine

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Criminal Justice

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Criminal justice

Criminal Justice


Four components to the system

Four components to the system

  • Legislative-some examples…

    • Felon voter right: Restored when no longer under DOC supervision-State.

    • Fairness in Cocaine Sentencing Act

      • Federal legislation to eliminate disparity in sentencing of crack vs. powder cocaine

      • Next step: vote by full house


Criminal justice

2. Police-issues include

  • Police Accountability-Citizen’s Review Board

  • Racial profiling


Criminal justice

  • Courts-issues include

    • Special courts, e.g. drug court, mental health court

    • Classism

    • Racism

      • 14% of drug users are African American-self reported

      • 35% of arrestees

      • 53% of convictions

      • 45% of incarcerated


Criminal justice

  • Corrections-Issues include

    • Rehabilitation vs. punishment

    • Increasing emphasis on punishment, e.g. mandatory minimums, 3 strikes

    • Increased rate of incarceration

      • Rate for women increasing 2x that of men

      • 1509 of 18,627 are women

      • 1/3 of women are in on drug charges; 12% overall

      • 2/1000 in 1970s; 6/1000 in 2006 (WA state)


Solutions

Solutions?

Washington State Institute for Public Policy report: Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction , Criminal Justice Costs, and Crime Rates

An analysis of 571 programs in place for adult offenders, juvenile offenders and prevention to determined what works and what the economic payoff is.

Motivated by projection of a need for 2 additional prisons in WA by 2020, possibly a third by 2030.


Surprise surprise

Surprise, surprise…

  • Incarceration rates have tripled in WA since the 1970s…6/1000 adults. (1930-1980=2/1000)

  • WA incarceration rate is 56% of nat’l

  • Incarceration rate is expected to grow by 23% by 2019

  • WA crime rate down 26% between 1980 and 2005

  • WA criminal justice system costs are up 92%, i.e. in 1980 cj expenditures were $590/household; in 2005 they were $1,130 (adjusted for inflation).


Examples of adult programs

Examples of adult programs

Costs are calculated by determining the benefits of the reduction in crime to victims and taxpayers minus the costs of the program.

  • Vocational education in prison-

    • Reduces crime outcomes by 9%

    • Saves $13,738 per participant

      2. Drug treatment in community

    • Reduces crime by 9.3%

    • Saves $10,054.00

  • Sex offender tx in prison with aftercare

    • Reduces crime outcomes by 7%

    • Costs $3,258 per participant


Examples of juvenile programs

Examples of juvenile programs

  • Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    • Reduces crime by 22%

    • Saves $77,798

  • Multisystemic Therapy

    • Reduces crime by 10.5%

    • Saves $18,213

  • Functional Family Therapy

    • Reduces crime by 15.9%

    • Saves $31,821

  • Scared Straight

    • Increases crime by 6.8%

    • Costs $14,667


Examples of prevention programs

Examples of prevention programs

  • Nurse-family partnerships

    • Reduces crime by 56.2%

    • Saves $14,283

  • Head Start type programs

    • Reduces crime 14.2%

    • Saves $12,196

  • High school graduation

    • Reduces crime 10.4%

    • No estimated savings in this report


When prevention doesn t work

When prevention doesn’t work…

  • Voices of Diversity

    • What motivated these people to make changes in their lives? Irritation response? Self actualization?

    • What helped them actually make the changes they made?

    • What knowledge, skills and attitudes do human service staff need to facilitate the client’s progress?


A little math will do you good

A little math will do you good

  • The mean: The average of a set of numbers.

  • The median: The number at which half the numbers are above and half are below.

  • The mode: The most frequently occurring number.


Terms and concepts

Terms and concepts

  • Percentage:

    • 20% of the population has a mental disorder.

    • the incarceration rate will increase by 23%.

    • Federal poverty guideline

  • Rate: incarceration rate was 2/1000 until 1980. Now it is 6/1000.

  • Disproportionality:

    • The U.S. has 5% of the world’s population and 25% of the world’s inmates.


Terms and concepts cont

Terms and concepts, cont.

Statistics may relate “success” rates. Key question: How is success defined?

  • A program may be described as effective. How is effective defined?

  • Know who the population is. Starters, completers and nonparticipants, for example.


Human service response

Human Service Response?

  • Communicate with decision makers.

  • Media efforts

  • Propose alternative sources of funding

  • Recruit others to contact media, decision makers, etc.

  • Build coalitions to weigh in


The human service role

The Human Service Role

  • Provide direct service

  • Communicate with decision makers:

    • Federal

    • State: Do you want 2 more prisons built while colleges take fewer students?

    • County: Do you want vice and dom. violence investigative units eliminated?

    • City

  • Advocate favorable legislation

  • Initiate laws and policies


Quiz review

Quiz review

  • Define deinstitutionalization

  • 4 components of crim. justice system

  • Calculate mean, median, percent of

  • Understand the income table

  • Understand rate vs. %

  • Define the program and who is served

    • SSI

    • SSDI

    • Civil mental health court

    • Criminal mental health court

    • DVR

    • ADA

    • Adult Protective Service


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