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DNA and RNA. Ch 11. DNA. To know how genes work  we must know what they are made of. Who helped to discover DNA?. Griffin (1928)  discovered Transformation (genetic information transferred) through mouse experiment

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DNA

  • To know how genes work

  • we must know what they are made of.


Who helped to discover dna
Who helped to discover DNA?

  • Griffin (1928) discovered Transformation (genetic information transferred) through mouse experiment

  • Avery (1944) discovered DNA stores & transmits genetic information from 1 generation to next


Who helped discover dna
Who helped discover DNA?

  • Hershey-Chase Experiment (1952)- used bacteriophage

    (virus that eats bacteria)

    to discover that the genetic material in the virus was the DNA

Now we know that genes are made of DNA- but how does DNA give us all that info???


Components structure of dna
Components & Structure of DNA

  • DNA made of units called Nucleotides


We still don’t know how DNA was arranged!!


Discovery of dna structure
Discovery of DNA structure categories:

  • Rosalind Franklin (1950’s): studied DNA using a technique called x-ray diffraction.

  • Her work was key to Watson & Cricks work


Discovery of dna structure1
Discovery of DNA structure categories:

  • Watson & Crick (1953): developed the double helix model of the structure of DNA


Double helix structure
Double-Helix Structure categories:

  • Bases of nucleotides are paired together

  • Attached by sugar phosphate backbone


Chromosomes dna replication
Chromosomes & DNA Replication categories:

  • DNA very long!

    The total length of DNA present in one adult human  is the equivalent distance from the earth to the sun and back.


Chromosome structure
Chromosome Structure categories:

  • Contain DNA & proteins (called histones) packed together called Chromatin


Dna replication
DNA Replication categories:

  • DNA must then replicate (copy) itself for cell division.

  • The 2 strands of DNA are called complimentarybecause Adenine Thymine

    Guanine Cytosine.


Replication
Replication categories:

  • Begins when an enzyme (DNA polymerase) breaks apart the hydrogen bonds that hold the bases together  two strands begin to come apart.




Rna protein synthesis
RNA & Protein Synthesis like the original!

  • DNA provides the information necessary to produce all of the proteins in our body.



RNA like the original!

  • RNA is essential in the production of proteins

  • Similar to DNA: but has 3 main differences

    • Uracil instead of Thymine

    • Single strand, not double strand

    • Ribose instead of deoxyribose

      • Ribonucleic Acid


Types of rna
Types of RNA like the original!

  • Carries copies of info from nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.

  • Compared to workers on an assembly line

  • SINGLE STRANDED!

    ***The production of mRNA from DNA happens in a process called transcription.

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA):


Types of rna1
Types of RNA like the original!

2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): makes up ribosome

  • Considered the tools or the builder that puts together the proteins

  • The ribosomes clamp onto the mRNA and become the site for protein synthesis.

  • Clumped, single stranded form of RNA


Types of rna2
Types of RNA like the original!

3. Transfer RNA (tRNA): transfers each amino acid (a.a.) to the ribosome

  • found in cytoplasm.

  • Folded, single stranded form of RNA

  • Attaches to and then transports the amino acid. to the site of protein synthesis at the ribosome


Each piece of tRNA only attaches to like the original!one and only one specific amino acid attached to a 3 letter Anticodon.


Transcription
Transcription like the original!

  • The process of making mRNA from strands of original DNA to transport genetic material into the cytoplasm for protein synthesis.

    Where?

    Prokaryotic cells: occurs in the cytoplasm

    Eukaryotic cells: occurs in the nucleus


Steps of transcription
Steps of Transcription like the original!

  • 1 ) RNA polymerase attaches to DNA chains at promoter locations (specific genes). * Start CODON ( AUG )

  • 2 ) DNA chains continue to unwind and are transcripted until a termination signal is reached ( specific sequence of nucleotides )

  • *Stop CODON ( UAA, UAG, UGA )

  • 3) mRNA chains in eukaryotes pass through the nuclear pores to the cytosol


  • Promoters like the original!: regions in DNA that tell DNA polymerase when to start & stop

Codon: 3 letter combination on the mRNA strand that codes for a specific amino acid.


Rna editing
RNA Editing like the original!

  • Introns: pieces of DNA that is NOT “read” to make proteins

    • Copied into mRNA, then taken out!

  • Exons: DNA that is coded (read) to make proteins


Protein synthesis translation
Protein Synthesis (Translation) like the original!

Remember – proteins are one type of organic compound (made up of polypeptides of amino acids)

  • During protein synthesis mRNA transcript is translated into amino acid sequences = GENETIC CODE

  • 3 NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE AMINO ACID = CODON


The steps of protein synthesis
The Steps of Protein Synthesis like the original!

  • mRNA codons attract specific tRNA anticodons to attach to the mRNA strand

    2) Each tRNA molecule brings a specific amino acid which then connect together to form an amino acid chain.


Protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis like the original!

A codon chart allows us to know what amino acid a tRNA molecule will bring according to the 3 nucleotide sequence on the mRNA strand.


The genetic code
The Genetic Code like the original!

  • Remember: amino acidsmake up proteins called polypeptides.

  • Language of mRNA is the genetic code

  • A, U , C, G

  • Codon: 3 nucleotides (in order) that codes for a certain amino acid

    • Ex. A-G-C or C-C-C


From dna to protein
From DNA to Protein like the original!

Prokaryotes

DNA—mRNA—tRNA—PROTEIN ( Cytosol )

Eukaryotes

DNA—mRNA—tRNA--PROTEIN ( ribosomes) -

The same for slugs, bugs, potatoes, tomatoes and every other living thing!


Mutations
Mutations like the original!

  • Changes in genetic material

  • Mutagen: Anything that causes a mutation in DNA.

    • Ex. X-Rays, UV Radiation, Nuclear Radiation, Cosmic Rays, Asbestos, Cyanide, Benzene


Kinds of mutations
Kinds of Mutations like the original!

Gene Mutations

  • Frameshift

    • GATTACAGC…  GTTACAGCA…

    • MY DOG SKIP  MD OGS KIP

  • Point

    • GCATTG  GCAATG

    • MY DOG SKIP  ME DOG SKIP


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