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CHAPTER 6-A The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Pressure. Gas Pressure. Units of pressure: atmosphere (atm) mm Hg (760 mm Hg = 1 atm) Pressure is force exerted per unit area Pa (kg/ms 2 , 101,325 Pa = 1 atm). Pressure–Volume Law (Boyle’s Law): . Boyle’s Law. Boyle’s Law.

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CHAPTER 6-A

The Ideal Gas Law

© 2012 by W. W. Norton & Company



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Gas Pressure

  • Units of pressure: atmosphere (atm)

    • mm Hg (760 mm Hg = 1 atm)

    • Pressure is force exerted per

    • unit area

    • Pa (kg/ms2, 101,325 Pa = 1 atm)



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Boyle’s Law

  • Pressure–Volume Law (Boyle’s Law):


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Boyle’s Law

  • Pressure–Volume Law (Boyle’s Law):

    V  1/P


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Charles’ Law

  • Temperature–Volume Law (Charles’ Law):


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Charles’ Law

  • Temperature–Volume Law (Charles’ Law):

    V  T


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Avogadro’s Law

  • The Volume–Amount Law (Avogadro’s Law):


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Avogadro’s Law

  • The Volume–Amount Law (Avogadro’s Law):

    V  n


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The Ideal Gas Law

  • Ideal gases obey an equation incorporating the laws of Charles, Boyle, and Avogadro.

    P V = n R T

    Where R is the combined proportionality constant.

    The gas constant, R = 0.08206 L·atm·K–1·mol–1


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Ideal Gas Law

  • What volume does 1 mole of methane gas (CH4) occupy at standard temperature and pressure (1.00 atm and 273.15 K)?

  • What volume does 1 mole of carbon dioxide gas occupy under the same conditions?

  • What is the volume occupied by 7.40 g of CO2 at STP?


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Ideal Gas Law

  • Oxygen gas is normally sold in 49.0 L steel containers at a pressure of 150.0 atm. How many moles (n) of oxygen does one container hold at 20oC?

  • What volume would the gas occupy if the pressure was reduced to 1.02 atm and the temperature raised from 20oC to 35oC?


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Ideal Gas Law

  • An inflated balloon with a volume of 0.55 L at sea level, where the pressure is 1.0 atm, is allowed to rise to a height of 6.5 km, where the pressure is about 0.40 atm. Assuming that the temperature remains constant, what is the final volume of the balloon?


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The Ideal Gas Law

  • Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a colorless, odorless, very unreactive gas. Calculate the pressure (in atm) exerted by 1.82 moles of the gas in a steel vessel of volume 5.43 L at 69.5°C.


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Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

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Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

  • The Partial Pressure (Px) of gas X in a mixture of gases is the pressure that gas X would exert if it alone occupied the container.

  • When calculating partial pressure, use the ideal gas law and ignore other gases in the container.


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Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

  • In a mixture of gases the total pressure, Ptot, is the sum of the partial pressures, Px, of the gases:

  • Dalton’s law allows us to work with mixtures of gases.


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