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CHAPTER 6-A The Ideal Gas LawPowerPoint Presentation

CHAPTER 6-A The Ideal Gas Law

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CHAPTER 6-A The Ideal Gas Law

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CHAPTER 6-A

The Ideal Gas Law

© 2012 by W. W. Norton & Company

- Units of pressure: atmosphere (atm)
- mm Hg (760 mm Hg = 1 atm)
- Pressure is force exerted per
- unit area
- Pa (kg/ms2, 101,325 Pa = 1 atm)

Pressure–Volume Law (Boyle’s Law):

- Pressure–Volume Law (Boyle’s Law):

- Pressure–Volume Law (Boyle’s Law):
V 1/P

- Temperature–Volume Law (Charles’ Law):

- Temperature–Volume Law (Charles’ Law):
V T

- The Volume–Amount Law (Avogadro’s Law):

- The Volume–Amount Law (Avogadro’s Law):
V n

- Ideal gases obey an equation incorporating the laws of Charles, Boyle, and Avogadro.
P V = n R T

Where R is the combined proportionality constant.

The gas constant, R = 0.08206 L·atm·K–1·mol–1

- What volume does 1 mole of methane gas (CH4) occupy at standard temperature and pressure (1.00 atm and 273.15 K)?
- What volume does 1 mole of carbon dioxide gas occupy under the same conditions?
- What is the volume occupied by 7.40 g of CO2 at STP?

- Oxygen gas is normally sold in 49.0 L steel containers at a pressure of 150.0 atm. How many moles (n) of oxygen does one container hold at 20oC?
- What volume would the gas occupy if the pressure was reduced to 1.02 atm and the temperature raised from 20oC to 35oC?

- An inflated balloon with a volume of 0.55 L at sea level, where the pressure is 1.0 atm, is allowed to rise to a height of 6.5 km, where the pressure is about 0.40 atm. Assuming that the temperature remains constant, what is the final volume of the balloon?

- Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a colorless, odorless, very unreactive gas. Calculate the pressure (in atm) exerted by 1.82 moles of the gas in a steel vessel of volume 5.43 L at 69.5°C.

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- The Partial Pressure (Px) of gas X in a mixture of gases is the pressure that gas X would exert if it alone occupied the container.
- When calculating partial pressure, use the ideal gas law and ignore other gases in the container.

- In a mixture of gases the total pressure, Ptot, is the sum of the partial pressures, Px, of the gases:
- Dalton’s law allows us to work with mixtures of gases.