ANCIENT EYGPT. Shelby Johnston Denise Snyder Gregory Buzar Deja Gomes. Earliest known Egyptian Architect. Imhotep said "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we shall die.“ . First Egyptian pyramid built during the 3 rd dynasty (2690-2610 B.C.). Imhotep (2635-2595B.C.).
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Shelby JohnstonDenise SnyderGregory BuzarDeja Gomes
Imhotep said "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we shall die.“
First Egyptian pyramid built during the 3rd dynasty (2690-2610 B.C.)
This pyramid was built with side steps
Tools used to build the pyramids
Cutting holes in the stone was done using sand and hand tools as depicted
A lever and Fulcrum were used to lift heavy objects
Use of sand combined with a copper saw was used to cut the stone
Great Pyramid of Giza
Pharaoh Khafre (2575 – 2465B.C.)
The sides of the pyramids are now smooth no more steps
Khafre’s pyramid & sphinx
Son of Khufu
Ancient Egyptian Science
Agriculture and Irrigation
a.Introduced as early as 5000 BCE.
b.Ancient Egyptians dug canals to direct water to places far from the banks of the Nile.
c.Dams were built perpendicular to the flow of the Nile.
d.Irrigation canals had to be dredged annually. All Egyptians expected to contribute to the maintenance and upkeep of the system.
e.Flood waters were routed into catch basins for water storage.
2.Ox drawn plough
a.Appeared as early as 2500 BC.
b.Made farming easier and more profitable.
c.Cows generally used for ploughingwhich caused milk production to decrease during ploughing time.
d.If animals were unavailable, humans were used.
e.Ancient Egyptian plough was lightly built and usually tied to horns of cattle.
a.Introduced around 1500 BC.
b.Counterbalanced sweep used to bring water from the Nile or canal to higher fields.
c.Pivots on a high post and is used to lower and raise a bucket containing water from a river or canal.
d.Water is emptied into jugs and transported.
e.Ideal for irrigating higher land such as gardens, orchids, and vineyards that weren’t in close proximity to the Nile.
All in all the ancient Egyptians were accomplished farmers. A lot of their success stemmed from the act that they had a “lucky” system of irrigation which prevented the salinization of the soil.
DiodorusSiculus, a Roman historian writing during the first century BCE, had a high opinion of the agricultural expertise of the Egyptians.
“The peasants lease plots of land, in so far as they are fertile, for a small sum from the king, the priests and the soldiery, and spend all their time working the fields. Being used to agricultural work since childhood they have much more experience than the farmers among other peoples. They know the condition of the soil, the flow of the water, the correct time of sowing and reaping, and the further treatment of the harvest very precisely. This they learn partly from the observations of their forebears, partly through their own perception.”
DiodorusSiculusHistorical LibraryVol 1, Chapter 74, After a German translation by Julius Friedrich Wurm
In ancient Egypt mathematics was used for
The Egyptians figured out the number of days in the year with their calendar. They were one of the ancient peoples who got the closest to the “true year”.
Surveyors and scribes were continually re-measuring the land whose boundaries had been obliterated by the inundation, and this measuring of the land was evidently the origin of geometry. It is believed Pythagoras, Plato and Euclid learned the mathematics and geometry in the Nile Valley.
The Egyptians that used mathematics the most were those in charge of engineers, workers and masons.
Higher forms of math were done buy those in building-related jobs.
The lower class, such as cooks and shop keepers used a much simpler math.
At the very outset of recorded Egyptian history we find mathematics highly developed; the design and construction of the Pyramids involved a precision of measurement impossible without considerable mathematical lore. The use of geometry helped erect these wonders of the world.
Ginger, believed to be the earliest
Canopic Jars: left to right; Imsety(protects the Liver), Duamutef (protects the stomach), Qebehsenuef (protects the intestines), and Hapy (protects the lungs).
The priest preparing a body
The most common practices of a medical nature were:
Circumcision was done by priest to
young males 10 – 14; as a coming of
The most common practices of a medical nature were (continued):
(author unknown); Ancient Egyptian Inventions; http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient egyptian inventions.html :
Lewis, Lowell N.; 2009, Agriculture & Horticulture in Ancient Egypt; http://www.egyptianagriculture.com/horticulture.html
Leju, Charles Lugor; Ancient Egyptian Quarrying: Minnesota State University; http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/farming; 2002
(author unknown); Irrigation Methods in Ancient Egypt; Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage (CultNat); http://www.eternalegypt.org/; 2005
(Dollinger, Andre’); Agriculture and horticulture in ancient Egypt; http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/agriculture.htm; 2000 to present