Ancient eygpt
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ANCIENT EYGPT. Shelby Johnston Denise Snyder Gregory Buzar Deja Gomes. Earliest known Egyptian Architect. Imhotep said "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we shall die.“ . First Egyptian pyramid built during the 3 rd dynasty (2690-2610 B.C.). Imhotep (2635-2595B.C.).

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Ancient eygpt

ANCIENT EYGPT

Shelby JohnstonDenise SnyderGregory BuzarDeja Gomes


Earliest known egyptian architect

Earliest known Egyptian Architect

Imhotep said "Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we shall die.“

First Egyptian pyramid built during the 3rd dynasty (2690-2610 B.C.)

Imhotep (2635-2595B.C.)

This pyramid was built with side steps


Tools used to build the pyramids

Tools used to build the pyramids

Cutting holes in the stone was done using sand and hand tools as depicted

A lever and Fulcrum were used to lift heavy objects

Use of sand combined with a copper saw was used to cut the stone


Ancient eygpt

“Pyramids were created as tombs that house the bodies and prepare them for the journey into the afterlife”

Great Pyramid of Giza

Pharaoh Khufu

(2589-2566 B.C.)

Pharaoh Khafre (2575 – 2465B.C.)

The sides of the pyramids are now smooth no more steps

Khafre’s pyramid & sphinx

Son of Khufu


Ancient egyptian science

Ancient Egyptian Science

Agriculture and Irrigation


Ancient egyptian agriculture

Ancient Egyptian Agriculture

  • Agriculture and irrigation went hand in hand in ancient Egypt. The civilization was based on the union of the land and the Nile River. The Nile flooded every year, leaving behind vital nutrients on top of the soil which contributed to very fertile conditions.


Three scientific breakthroughs were very important to the success of ancient egyptian agriculture

Three Scientific Breakthroughs Were Very Important to the Success of Ancient Egyptian Agriculture.

1.Irrigation system.

a.Introduced as early as 5000 BCE.

b.Ancient Egyptians dug canals to direct water to places far from the banks of the Nile.

c.Dams were built perpendicular to the flow of the Nile.

d.Irrigation canals had to be dredged annually. All Egyptians expected to contribute to the maintenance and upkeep of the system.

e.Flood waters were routed into catch basins for water storage.


Basic irrigation system in ancient egypt

Basic irrigation system in ancient Egypt


Ancient eygpt

2.Ox drawn plough

a.Appeared as early as 2500 BC.

b.Made farming easier and more profitable.

c.Cows generally used for ploughingwhich caused milk production to decrease during ploughing time.

d.If animals were unavailable, humans were used.

e.Ancient Egyptian plough was lightly built and usually tied to horns of cattle.


Ancient eygpt

3.Shadoof

a.Introduced around 1500 BC.

b.Counterbalanced sweep used to bring water from the Nile or canal to higher fields.

c.Pivots on a high post and is used to lower and raise a bucket containing water from a river or canal.

d.Water is emptied into jugs and transported.

e.Ideal for irrigating higher land such as gardens, orchids, and vineyards that weren’t in close proximity to the Nile.


Ancient eygpt

All in all the ancient Egyptians were accomplished farmers. A lot of their success stemmed from the act that they had a “lucky” system of irrigation which prevented the salinization of the soil.

DiodorusSiculus, a Roman historian writing during the first century BCE, had a high opinion of the agricultural expertise of the Egyptians.

“The peasants lease plots of land, in so far as they are fertile, for a small sum from the king, the priests and the soldiery, and spend all their time working the fields. Being used to agricultural work since childhood they have much more experience than the farmers among other peoples. They know the condition of the soil, the flow of the water, the correct time of sowing and reaping, and the further treatment of the harvest very precisely. This they learn partly from the observations of their forebears, partly through their own perception.”

DiodorusSiculusHistorical LibraryVol 1, Chapter 74, After a German translation by Julius Friedrich Wurm


Mathematics

Mathematics

In ancient Egypt mathematics was used for

•Measuring time

•Geometry

•Daily life

•Pyramids


Measuring time

Measuring Time

The Egyptians figured out the number of days in the year with their calendar. They were one of the ancient peoples who got the closest to the “true year”.


Geometry

Geometry

Surveyors and scribes were continually re-measuring the land whose boundaries had been obliterated by the inundation, and this measuring of the land was evidently the origin of geometry. It is believed Pythagoras, Plato and Euclid learned the mathematics and geometry in the Nile Valley.


Daily life

Daily Life

The Egyptians that used mathematics the most were those in charge of engineers, workers and masons.

Higher forms of math were done buy those in building-related jobs.

The lower class, such as cooks and shop keepers used a much simpler math.


Pyramids

Pyramids

At the very outset of recorded Egyptian history we find mathematics highly developed; the design and construction of the Pyramids involved a precision of measurement impossible without considerable mathematical lore. The use of geometry helped erect these wonders of the world.


Mummification

Mummification

  • Egyptians did not originally mummify their dead, prior to 3400 BC they preformed simple pit burial services.

  • From the heat and dryness of the sand, corpses would become preserved. Over later centuries the process was duplicated to represent the dismemberment and reconstruction of Osiris, the “first mummy”, and give the “ka” a body in the afterlife so they could seek sustenance. Mummification itself became more complex to accompany the growth of the complex religious system of Egypt as it formed.

  • The efforts to begin mummification began as early as the 2nd Dynasty and were perfected by the 4th Dynasty.

  • Since it was part of a religious ritual, essentially just a funeral service, priests preformed the duty of embalmers.

  • Outside of perfecting the art of mummification very little was achieved from the practice. Egyptian knowledge of anatomy wasn’t broadened and nothing learned in the embalming process transcended into day to day life.

Ginger, believed to be the earliest

Egyptian mummy


Mummification continued

Mummification (Continued)

  • The process began by delivering the deceased to an embalming house where priests would begin the ceremony.

  • They would extract all internal organs out of the body and refill the space with aromatic and spiritually significant substance before closing the body. Then they would preserve the organs and place them in canopic jars.

  • The corpse would then be packed in natron for approximately 40 -70 days. After being completely dried the body would be cleaned, have aromatic oils applied, and be wrapped in linens around 100 meters long. The higher than elevation of the deceased the more decorative the other pieces placed on the body would be. (Like gold, precious stones, and amulets.)

  • The entire mummy would then be coated in resin for preservation, given a death mask, placed in a coffin. If of higher rank they would also have a sarcophagus.

  • As time passed the process of decoration and ceremony became more elaborate and complex.

Canopic Jars: left to right; Imsety(protects the Liver), Duamutef (protects the stomach), Qebehsenuef (protects the intestines), and Hapy (protects the lungs).

The priest preparing a body


Medicine

Medicine

  • What we know of medical practices comes mainly from medical papyrus & from tomb and temple decorations.

  • Based on Archeologist evidence the Egyptians had two major sources of medical knowledge. The Ebers papyrus, a medical encyclopedia of sorts which described ailments and advised treatments, and the Edwin Smith papyrus, which dealt with wounds and their treatments almost exclusively.

The most common practices of a medical nature were:

  • Daily injury treatment, due tohard labor and unsafe work conditions.

  • Treatment for blindness, due to the harsh Egyptian sun and sand.

  • Circumcision, which was a common practice, but mostly religious.

Circumcision was done by priest to

young males 10 – 14; as a coming of

age practice.


Medical continued

Medical (Continued)

The most common practices of a medical nature were (continued):

  • Surgery was practiced only externally and at a extremely basic level.

  • Medical professionals were mainly there to treat symptoms of ailments, but without proper knowledge of the body they could not anticipate or overcome most ailments.

  • Herbal Remedies along with incantations were the main form of cures for illness

  • Childbirth and Gynecology procedures were given extensive study

  • Birth Control methods were common, but most ineffective

  • Like many parts of Egyptian life the medical field held a strong religious aspect. Ptah, who was a god acknowledge as one of the creators of the world protected doctors, among other things.

Surgical Instruments

Ptah


Works cited

Works Cited

  • Louvre. Retrieved (2010, Feb. 14) http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226079&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673226079&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500776

  • Mathews, Kevine & Artifice, Inc. , 1994, Architects Imhotep, Retrieved (2010, Feb 14) http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Imhotep.html

  • Rymer, Eric, 2000, Piramide de paso de Djoser, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 11) http://www.ihistory101.net/espanol/egypt_1/rf-k-djoser-pyramid.htm

  • Secrets of lost empires, Retrieved (2010, Feb 14) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/lostempires/obelisk/cutting.html

  • Biography of Imhotep, Retrieved (2010, Feb 14) http://www.newsdial.com/biographies/historical-figures/imhotep.html

  • The Step pyramid of Sakkara, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 11) http://www.lamiz.com/monuments/step-pyramid-sakkara.html

  • Attic Designs, 2008, King Khufu and the great pyramid, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 11) http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/king-khufu-and-the-great-pyramid.html

  • Bart, Anneke, Ancient Egypt, Saint Louis University, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 14) http://euler.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/kings%20and%20Queens/Khafre.html

  • Bayuk, Andrew, 1995, Guardian’s Egypt, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 14) http://www.guardians.net/egypt/khufu.htm

  • Retrieved (2010, Feb. 14) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Khafre.jpg

  • Soylent Communications, 2010, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 10) http://nndb.net/people/510/000163021/

  • BBC, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 14) Historic Figures http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/khufu.shtml

  • Rose, Christopher, 2005, Ancient Cairo, Retrieved (2010, Feb. 9) http://menic.utexas.edu/cairo/history/ancient/ancient.html


Ancient eygpt

http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/mummies/home.html

  • http://www.egyptologyonline.com/mummification.htm

  • http://www.carnegiemnh.org/exhibitions/egypt/mummification.htm

  • http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/mummification.htm

  • Helen Strudwick, eds. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. London: Amber Books, 2006.

    http://images.google.com

    (author unknown); Ancient Egyptian Inventions; http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient egyptian inventions.html :

    Lewis, Lowell N.; 2009, Agriculture & Horticulture in Ancient Egypt; http://www.egyptianagriculture.com/horticulture.html

    Leju, Charles Lugor; Ancient Egyptian Quarrying: Minnesota State University; http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/farming; 2002

    (author unknown); Irrigation Methods in Ancient Egypt; Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage (CultNat); http://www.eternalegypt.org/; 2005

    (Dollinger, Andre’); Agriculture and horticulture in ancient Egypt; http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/agriculture.htm; 2000 to present


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