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Extra Vehicular Activity. Suits and Devices. EVA Suit Requirements. Camera for exterior shots and face shots Direct voice com independent of rover Support EVA time of up to 10 hours EVA suits will be provided by HERCULES staff. Technology Development Targets. Skin tight suits

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Extra vehicular activity

Extra Vehicular Activity

Suits and Devices


Eva suit requirements
EVA Suit Requirements

  • Camera for exterior shots and face shots

  • Direct voice com independent of rover

  • Support EVA time of up to 10 hours

  • EVA suits will be provided by HERCULES staff

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Technology development targets
Technology Development Targets

  • Skin tight suits

  • Hard suits – “inflate” soft suit inside carbon fiber shell

    • Joint technology challenges

    • Anti-dust coatings – electrostatic approach

    • Vacuum/abrasion resistant coatings

  • EVA mobility

  • EVA tools

  • Garage and Resupply Aids

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Custom suits the old way
Custom Suits – The old way

The Apollo suit, including the life support backpack, weighed about 180 pounds.

(Source NASA http://history.nasa.gov/

spacesuits.pdf)

  • Gemini 4 Suit - Ed White –Photo Courtesy of NASA

Apollo 17 Suit – Harrison Schmitt – Photo Courtesy of NASA

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Modular suit now
Modular Suit - Now

Shuttle suit with the life support system, weighs about 310 pounds.

The suit itself weighs about 110 pounds.

Shuttle EMU - Modular –Courtesy of NASA

(Source NASA http://history.nasa.gov/

spacesuits.pdf)

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Suit mass life support requirements
Suit Mass/Life Support Requirements

  • The life support system design goal - 10 hours EVA

    • Water: 2.4 kg

    • Oxygen: 0.35 kg

    • Food: 0.25 kg

    • Waste Products Removal/Handling:

      • CO2: 0.4 kg

      • Urine: 0.66 kg

      • Solid Waste: 0.09 kg

  • Mass is in fabric, pumps, electronics, etc.

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Rover suit design concepts sizing
Rover Suit Design Concepts/Sizing

  • Mass < 100 pounds + modular life support for variable duration

  • Straw man design:

    • One standard COTS pressure tank (0.727 kg of O2) + 1 smaller reserve tank, + third nitrogen tank

    • CO2 Removal: Lithium hydroxide or rechargeable metal oxide cartridges.

    • Food, Water, Waste

      • Water ~ 90-100 ounces (ref. NASA STD-3000

      • Food dispenser – small built into helmet

      • Waste collection: derived from the Shuttle Waste Contamination System (WCS)

        (Reference: AIAA2003-6276.SCOUT.pdf)

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Hard suit prototype
Hard Suit Prototype

Hard Suit Prototype – not enhanced

Mark III Suit – Evaluation Unit - Photo Courtesy of NASA

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Skin tight suits the choice for rovers
Skin Tight Suits – The Choice for Rovers

  • Skin tight suits – Biosuit 1

  • Use mechanical counter pressure (MCP) for pressure production

    • Active materials/piezo-electric based pressure production

  • Suit is donned like conventional clothes – then shrinks to fit

  • Smaller, more mobile

  • Duration extension with recharge packs on cart

Note 1: As described in “An Astronaut ‘Bio-Suit’ System for Exploration Missions, Newman, D. J.; Hoffman, J.; et al - Presentation to NIAC by MIT (ref. http://mvl.mit.edu/

EVA/workshop.html)

Figure: http://mvl.mit.edu/EVA/biopics/DJN_MarsTwoView.jpg

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Augmented hard suit construction and serious eva
Augmented Hard Suit – Construction and Serious EVA

  • Dust free EVA/hardsuits mounted on habitat walls (thus system must clean a minimal area before re-dock) – Scaled lander docking technology – Suit docks

  • Enhanced mobility through movement amplifiers

  • Spring based hopper and gyroscopic stability options

  • Training required for use!

  • Race Support/Rescue Personnel, but probably not for rover teams

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Space suit feature trades
Space Suit Feature Trades

  • Trade of Suit Types and suitability

  • Based on: ASTRONAUT PERFORMANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE SPACESUIT DESIGN: Frazer, A. L, et al, IAC-02-G.5.03

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Suit technology race will accelerate and prove concepts
Suit Technology – Race will Accelerate and Prove Concepts

  • Electrostatic charging effects – use dust properties to repel rather than attract dust

    • Cleaning station – baghouse with electrostatic precipitator components built into suit – plug in?

  • Electrostatic dust removal from rover surfaces – hatch areas, viewports, solar cells

  • Skin Suits that integrate self-cleaning fabrics

  • Disposable covers for contingency use suits

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Backpack to dock
Backpack to Dock

  • Suit docks 1

  • Adaptable to soft or hard suit designs

Note 1: “Suitport” - the NASA-Ames Hazmat vehicle, and the Hamilton-Sundstrand “Ready to Wear” Marssuit (Hodgeson & Guyer, 1998, 2000)

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Helmet incorporates video features
Helmet Incorporates Video Features +

  • Stereoscopic cameras

  • Work lights

  • Interior camera for facial shot - video appeal

  • Multiband Radio/suit controls – Radio links to

    • Rover

    • Earth-comm link (satellite)

    • Other EVA

  • Food/Water dispenser

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Rover competion drives spiral
Rover Competion Drives Spiral

  • Development of rover concepts will drive, and in some cases, be driven by suit design

  • Race will serve to force suit evolution for focused needs and lead to diversified suit choices

  • Race will accelerate tool/EVA aid design

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Eva tools
EVA Tools

  • Design of suitable tools and EVA aids facilitates competition goals

  • Design for simplicity and utility and…

  • Video appeal

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Lunar crossbow
Lunar Crossbow

  • Simple, effective, photogenic

  • Ideal for projecting rescue, tow, comm or even power lines

  • Max Range = v02/g, where gmoon = 1.62 m/s2

  • A projectile launcher capable of 105 meters/second initial velocity will have a max range of ~ 6.8 km. Off the shelf sporting crossbows can propel 26 gram projectiles at this velocity

  • Future study: Review designs for fishing crossbows, FOG/M missiles for lunar use

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Regolith hammer
Regolith Hammer

  • Simple hammer device filled with regolith to aid in hammering stakes, etc., into the lunar surface

  • Bipod stabilization

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Eva scooter vs nonconventional personal locomotion
EVA Scooter vs. Nonconventional Personal Locomotion

  • Trade – Amplified foot transport, conventional scooter, Segway type devise

  • Vendor/sponsor developed “common cycle” for all rovers

  • All will face dust challenges

  • Area needs more study!

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Garage and way station technologies
Garage and Way Station Technologies

  • En route solar storm protection desirable for team safety

  • Way Stations need crew resupply and rescue aids

  • Way stations demonstrate autonomous helpers

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Inflatable way station garage
Inflatable Way Station Garage

Unfolding two layer

petal-like structure with

embedded inflatable beams

Unmanned landing pod

Self-erecting structure

Completed Garage

Regolith “pumps” while inflating

Idea adapted from: Chow, P. Y., and Lin, T. Y. ~1988:. ‘‘Structures for the Moon.’’ Engineering, construction, and operations in space, S. W. Johnson and J. P.Wetzel, eds., ASCE, New York, 362–374.

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Way station resupply rescue
Way Station Resupply/Rescue

  • LSRU – Lunar Surface Replaceable Units

  • Way station has drive under resupply device

    • Dock port on top or side of rover

    • Resupply cannister plugs in

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Resupply rescue transfer concept
Resupply/Rescue/Transfer Concept

  • Way station automatically cleans rover dock area and attaches tunnel, crew crawls through and manually collects resupply

  • Could serve as crew transfer/rescue aid

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Autonomous helpers
Autonomous Helpers

  • Way stations will be deployed with an autonomous or remotecontrolled mini-rover.

  • Remote control or autonomous

    • Drive to some local high point (perhaps within 5 km - approx line of site) of the waypoint to aid in location of the waypoint once a rover gets close.

    • Provides rover inspection and damage assement utility

    • Camera link to way station for video transmission to earth

    • Minimal supply cache transportation to nearby rover

    • Power from solar/battery combination

    • Size (small enough to go underneath most rovers for inspection)

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Autonomous helpers utility and advertising
Autonomous Helpers – Utility and Advertising

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • EVA Capability, events crucial to race appeal

  • Race provides stimulus for EVA development

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Backup charts
Backup Charts

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Inflatable structure
Inflatable Structure

Graphic from: Engineering, Design and Construction of Lunar Bases H. Benaroya; L. Bernold; and K. M. Chua, ASCE 0893-13212002

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Eva lunar soil properties references
EVA-Lunar Soil Properties References

  • http://rtreport.ksc.nasa.gov/techreports/2001report/200/206.html

    • Key milestones:

    • Experiment with actual lunar dust.

    • Determine the charge generated on dust particles by photoemission due to ultraviolet absorption.

    • Expose materials to charged and uncharged lunar dust under simulated lunar environmental conditions.

    • Contact: Dr. C.I. Calle ([email protected]), YA-F2-T, (321) 867-3274

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Eva electrostatic charging
EVA-Electrostatic Charging

  • http://debye.colorado.edu/ZoltansJGR.pdf

  • Contact charging of Lunar and Martian dust simulants

  • Quotes: “Our experiments demonstrated that both regolith analog samples (JSC-1 and JSC-Mars-1) can become highly charged from a contact with either an insulating or conducting surface. The dust charge from contacts thus can be comparable or even exceed the charge a dust particle collects in a typical low temperature space plasma environment where the equilibrium charge is on the order of the electron temperature, Te, which is typically few eV [Horányi, 1996].”

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Eva electrostatic charging cont d
EVA-Electrostatic Charging (cont’d)

  • “The large contact charges described here for planetary regolith analogs JSC-1 and JSC-Mars-1 suggest that grains lifted off airless planetary surfaces will carry a significant charge, regardless of ambient plasma conditions.”

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


Eva dust properties research and simulation
EVA-Dust Properties – Research and Simulation

  • Minnesota Lunar Dust Simulant: “This simulant reproduces the chemical composition of lunar dust as well as its microscopic morphology. It does not reproduce well the mechanical properties of in situ lunar dust, due to the absence of Van der Waals (intermolecular level attraction) forces between grains at ambient pressure.”

  • Klinkrad H., U. Fuller, J.C. Zarnecki, "Retrieval of Space Debris Information from ESA's DISCOS Catalogue", Proc. ESA Workshop on Space Environment Analysis, Noordwijk, 9-12 October 1990 (ESA WPP-23)

USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture


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