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Embedded Systems Seminar Fall 2005 Elliot Jaffe. Vehicular Technologies. Sensors, Networks and Processors. Applicable Vehicles Potential Uses Aside: Automotive equipment lifecycle Networking Processing Sensors Conclusions. Applicable Vehicles. Potential Uses. Lifecycle Management

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Embedded systems seminar fall 2005 elliot jaffe

Embedded Systems Seminar

Fall 2005

Elliot Jaffe

Vehicular Technologies


Sensors networks and processors
Sensors, Networks and Processors

  • Applicable Vehicles

  • Potential Uses

  • Aside: Automotive equipment lifecycle

  • Networking

  • Processing

  • Sensors

  • Conclusions



Potential uses
Potential Uses

  • Lifecycle Management

    • Equipment Monitoring, Maintenance, Performance

  • Awareness of the Environment

    • Weather Conditions, Air Pressure, Road Surface

  • Awareness of the Operators

    • Physical State, Mental State, Comfort

  • Global vs. Local Interactions

    • Convoys, Traffic Planning, Collision Detection


Automotive component lifecycle
Automotive Component Lifecycle

  • Long lead times between conception and wide spread deployment

  • Case in point: Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS)

    • Bosch 1930’s

    • First Electronic system in production: 1978

      • Trucks and Mercedes-Benz

    • Standard Equipment – 1985 (Ford Grenada Mk3)

    • GM stops offering ABS as Standard Equipment on most of its 58 vehicles in 2003


Automotive component requirements
Automotive Component Requirements

  • Low Cost

  • Mass Production (availability, liability)

  • Dependability (reliability, safety)

  • System Modularity

  • Easy Field Maintenance

  • Simple MMI (drivers are not experts)

  • Security (against prohibited actions)


Automotive component lifecycle1
Automotive Component Lifecycle

Source: Integrated Vehicle Control System Technology — Steering, Braking, Suspension, and Powertrain Systems, Aloysius J. (Alois) Seewald, TRW Automotive Chassis


Networking
Networking

  • Many bus definitions

    • http://www.interfacebus.com/Design_Connector_Automotive.html

    • Class A: UART < 10kbps

    • Class B: non-critical 10kbps to 125kbps

    • Class C: real-time high-data: 125kbps – 1Mbps

    • Emissions/Diagnostics

    • Mobile Media

    • X-By-Wire: replace mechanical systems

      • -40  +125C


Examples
Examples

  • LIN- local interconnect network

    • http://lin-subbus.org

    • 20Kbps

    • Master/slave architecture

  • CAN – controller area network (ISO 11898)

    • http://www.ni.com/automotive/can.htm

    • High speed: 1Mbps

      • Engine and powertrain

    • Low speed: 128kbps

      • Body and comfort devices


Networking1
Networking

  • X-By-Wire Architecture

    • Proposed by Consortium in 1996-1998

    • Time Triggered Protocol (1993)

    • Considered failure modes and requirements

    • Composability

    • Timeliness

    • Fault Tolerance

    • http://www.vmars.tuwien.ac.at/projects/xbywire/projects/new-home.html



Processing
Processing

  • First Microprocessor, 1978 Cadillac Seville

    • Trip Computer, 6802

  • Freescale (Motorola) MPC563 32bit microprocessor

    • 63-105 MIPS

    • -40C – 125C

    • 2.6V Core Operating Voltage

    • 5V I/O Operating Voltage

    • 0.8, 1.12W Power dissipation (typical, max)

    • 512K Flash RAM, 32K RAM

    • 32 Channel A/D (10 bits)

Source: www.freescale.com


Sensors
Sensors

  • Engine and Drivetrain Sensors

  • Emissions Control System Sensors

  • Safety and Security Sensors

  • Other Internal Sensors


Engine and drivetrain sensors
Engine and Drivetrain Sensors

  • Throttle Position

    • Monitors the position of the accelerator pedal and the throttle linkage, so the ECM can make accurate air/fuel mixture adjustments

  • Barometric Air Pressure (BAP

    • Reads changes in barometric (air) pressure. The ECM uses this information to adjust timing advance and air/fuel ratio

  • Mass Air flow/ MAF

    • Measures the amount of air drawn through the engine's air intake, so the computer can compensate for altitude and temperature


Engine and drivetrain sensors1
Engine and Drivetrain Sensors

  • Permanent magnet vehicle speed sensor

    • A permanent magnet generator

    • Produces a pulsing (ac) voltage when it spins

    • Voltage level and number of pulses increase with vehicle speed

  • Knock / Detonation

    • Listens for engine "ping" so the ECM can retard the spark timing, and thereby reduce emissions and overheating, if the engine is knocking


Engine and drivetrain sensors2
Engine and Drivetrain Sensors

  • Magnetic Fluid Level

    • Used for brake fluid, coolant, washer fluid and oil level sensing

  • Temperature

    • Air Temperature

    • Coolant Temperature

    • HVAC Temperature

    • Transmission Temperature


Emission control sensors
Emission Control Sensors

  • Required due to emission control legislation

  • EGR Valve

    • Recalculates a measured amount of exhaust gas into the engine's air intake, to lower combustion temperatures and reduce emissions, especially NOx

  • Ported Vacuum Switch

    • Senses engine temperature, and opens or closes vacuum lines to various emissions-related components


Safety and security sensors

Inertial Sensors

active stabilization and navigation applications

Wheel Speed

Occupant Position

Weight

Driver Seat Position

Tire Inflation

Safety and Security Sensors


Other interior sensors
Other Interior Sensors

  • Climate Control Systems

  • Ambient Air Temperature

  • Seat Temperature

  • Air Flow

  • Audio Volume (for Active Feedback)

  • Ambient Light (for auto-tint)


External sensors
External Sensors

  • DARPA Grand Challenge

  • http://www.darpa.mil/grandchallenge/TechPapers/AutonomousVehicleSystems.pdf

  • Range Finding

  • Obstacle Detection

  • Terrain Detection





Range finding
Range Finding

  • RADAR

    • Radio Detection and Ranging

  • LADAR

    • Laser Detection and Ranging

  • SONAR

    • Sound Navigation and Ranging



Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Applicable Vehicles

  • Potential Uses

  • Aside: Automotive equipment lifecycle

  • Networking

  • Processing

  • Sensors


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