Iex8175 rf electronics
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IEX8175 RF Electronics. Avo Ots telekommunikatsiooni õppetool, TTÜ raadio- ja sidetehnika inst. [email protected] Labs. Laboratory works are on 10th of October, 7th of November, 21st of November, 5th of December room II-407. Marika Kulmar, [email protected] Switching Network. Telephony.

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IEX8175 RF Electronics

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Iex8175 rf electronics

IEX8175 RF Electronics

Avo Otstelekommunikatsiooni õppetool,

TTÜ raadio- ja sidetehnika [email protected]


Iex8175 rf electronics

Labs

Laboratory works are on 10th of October, 7th of November, 21st of November, 5th of December room II-407. Marika Kulmar, [email protected]


Telephony

Switching Network

Telephony

Open Service Application Layer

(JAIN, AIN, TAPI,JTAPI, XML etc.)

TDM/Circuit Switch

Open/Standard Interface

Line

Concentration

Call Control

Connection Control

Features

Open Call Control Layer

(SIP, H.323, MGCP, etc.)

Digital Trunk

Subsystem

Common Channel

Signaling Complex

Administration

Maintenance

Billing

Open/Standard Interface

Standards-Based

Packet Infrastructure Layer

(IP, ATM)


Qos quality of service

ITU-T E.800 Recommendation

QoS – Quality of Service


Qos quality of service1

ITU-T E.800 Recommendation

QoS – Quality of Service


Hierarchical qos

Hierarchical QoS

MPLS VPN

Internet

10 GigE

Cust n

VoIP

Cust 4

MPLSTunnel

GigE

VideoConf

Cust 3

Customer # 1 VLAN

VideoStream

Cust 2

Data p1

Data p2

Cust 1

Internet


Physical layer i

Services

(E1, E2, E3, E4, Video, etc.)

Layers

Payload and Path Overhead

Map Payload and Path OH into VC

Path

Map VC and MS OH into internal signal

VC and MS Overhead

Multiplex Section

STM-N Signal

Map internal signal and RS OH into STM-N signal

Regen. Section

Regen. Section

Light Pulse

Optical Conversion

Physical

Photonic

Regenerator

Terminal

Terminal

Physical Layer - I.


S t m 1

Order of transmission

1st

2nd

S T M 1

270 columns

Section

overhead

(SOH)

VC Capacity

9 columns

261 columns


Stm n frame

STM-N frame

270 x N Columns

9xN Columns

STM-N VC capacity

9 Rows

125 μsec

Section Overhead


Rate hierarchy

SONET

SDH

Line Rate

SPE Rate

Optical

Electrical

Level

(Mbit/s)

(Mbit/s)

Level

Level

STM-1

155.52

150.336

OC-3

STS-3

STM-4

622.08

601.344

OC-12

STS-12

2405.376

STM-16

2488.32

OC-48

STS-48

STM-64

9953.28

9621.504

OC-192

STS-192

STM-256

38486.016

OC-768

STS-768

39813.12

Rate Hierarchy


Uni and bi directional

Uni- and Bi-directional

A

A

A-C

A-C

F

B

F

B

C-A

C-A

  • Only working traffic is shown

  • Subnetwork (path) or multiplex section switching for protection

E

C

E

C

D

D

Bi-directional Ring

(2 fibers)

Uni-directional Ring

(1 fiber)


Synchronization in voice networks

Synchronization in Voice Networks

Network Clock

0.000001 ppm

CB

M14

LT

LT

M14

M14

LT

LT

M14

CB

DS0

Switch

E1

E4

prop.

E4

E1

E1

E4

prop.

E4

E1

f1

20ppm

f2

20ppm

f3

20ppm

f4

20ppm

f5

20ppm

f6

20ppm

  • Asynchronous transport network uses pulse stuffing and is transparent to E1 timing


Synchronization distribution

Synchronization Distribution

Network Clock

(Stratum 1)

0.000001 ppm

Dedicated Timing

E1

CB

M14

LT

LT

M14

M14

LT

LT

M13

CB

DS0

Switch

E1

E4

prop.

E4

E1

E1

E4

prop.

E4

E1

20ppm

20ppm

  • Timing distribution is done using embedded E1 facility

  • Asynchronous transport network is transparent to E1 timing


Initial sdh deployments

Initial SDH Deployments

Network Clock

(Stratum 1)

0.000001 ppm

SDH

NE

SDH

NE

M14

M14

M14

LT

LT

M14

CB

CB

DS0

Switch

E1

E4

STM-16

E4

E1

E1

E4

prop.

E4

E1

f1

20ppm

f2

20ppm

f3

20ppm

f4

20ppm

f5

20ppm

f6

20ppm

  • SDH used in point-point configuration

  • Direct replacement for async transport

  • SDH terminals free-run at 20ppm. Not network synchronized. No pointer adjustments so no issues with E1/E4 mapping jitter !


Mesh topology networks

Router

Router

Router

Router

Mesh Topology Networks

  • Cross-Connects are nxn switches

  • Interconnects S D H streams

B

A

C

D

F

G

E


Time slot interchange tsi

Time-Slot Interchange (TSI)

  • Write bytes from arriving TDM stream into memory

  • Read bytes in permuted order into outgoing TDM stream

  • Max # slots = 125 msec / (2 x memory cycle time)

a

1

Read slots according to connection permutation

2

b

3

d

b

c

b

a

a

d

c

  

24

2

1

24

2

1

23

23

Write slots in order of arrival

22

23

c

  • Incoming TDM stream

  • Outgoing TDM stream

24

d

Time-slot interchange


Links

Links

http://www.packetizer.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VoIP

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MPLS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synchronous_Digital_Hierarchy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCM

http://www.juniper.net/solutions/literature/solutionbriefs/160019.pdf


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