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Management History and Theories. M. Burns, PhD, RD FCS 3000. Management Process. The early, early days…. “A bed that has been made up a week or more is not fit to sleep in: as moisture gathers, which often proves fatal to persons sleeping in one”. Early 20 th century….

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Management history and theories l.jpg

Management History and Theories

M. Burns, PhD, RD

FCS 3000


Management process l.jpg
Management Process

M. Burns, 2007


The early early days l.jpg
The early, early days…

  • “A bed that has been made up a week or more is not fit to sleep in: as moisture gathers, which often proves fatal to persons sleeping in one”

M. Burns, 2007


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Early 20th century…

  • Management and home economics merged thinking

  • Gilbreth and Frederick

    • Lake Placid Conferences (1899-1908)

  • Taylor

    • ‘Father of management’

    • Work simplification

M. Burns, 2007


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Eras of home management

  • 1900-1930s

    • Health, sanitation, hygiene

    • Household work was hands-on, arduous, and repetitive

    • No indoor plumbing or electricity for most

    • Catalog shopping is new

M. Burns, 2007


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Eras of home management

  • 1940’s – early 1950’s

    • Increased use of household equipment, efficiency, step saving, and task simplification

    • More clothing, food, and cleaning products purchased

    • Shopping centers begin

M. Burns, 2007


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Eras of home management

  • 1950s – 1960s

    • Gradual swing from work performance in the home

    • Resource decision making becomes more of a family issue

M. Burns, 2007


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Eras of home management

  • 1970s -1980s

    • Systems framework emphasizing the interconnections among family, home, and the greater society

M. Burns, 2007


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Postmodern era

  • Household work is still hands-on with more machine aided

  • Home delivery expanded with 800 numbers, internet shopping, self-service, pervasive media exposure

M. Burns, 2007


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Early legislation

  • Smith-Lever Act (1914)

    • Funding for extension programs

  • Smith-Hughes Act (1917)

    • Funding for training home ec teachers

  • Purnell Act (1925)

    • Funding for research

M. Burns, 2007


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More recent legislation

  • Consumer protection

  • Child labor laws

  • Welfare reform

  • Nutrition policies

  • Work leave policies

  • Healthcare reform

M. Burns, 2007


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Current research

  • Financial/economic resources

  • Human/household resources

    • Experiences/expectations of working families

    • Cultural images of working families

    • Interlocking careers

    • Retirement issues

    • Midlife transitions

  • Time use continues to be the most studied.

M. Burns, 2007


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Theory defined

  • Organized system of ideas or beliefs (hypotheses) that can be measured

  • System of assumptions or principles

  • Functions

    • Organize facts/situations

    • Predict future behaviors

    • Control/alter behavior

M. Burns, 2007


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Premise of Systems Theory

  • System defined

    • Integrated set of parts that function together for the end result

  • Emphasis on the whole

  • Interconnectedness of the parts

  • Interactions between different systems

M. Burns, 2007


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Systems Theory

Demands

Values

Matter

Energy

Information

Resources

Feedback

Planning

Implementing

Decision making

Controlling

Communicating

Facilitating

Use of resources

Inputs

Met demands

Achieved goals

Satisfaction

Dissatisfaction

Altered resources

Throughputs

Outputs

M. Burns, 2007


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Feedback Loop

Assess

current

situation

Establish

objectives/

goals

Develop plans

Provide

feedback

Monitor

results

Implement

plans

M. Burns, 2007


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Characteristics of systems

  • Degree of openness of system

    • Morphogenic – more open

    • Morphostatic – more closed

  • Degree of disorder/randomness

    • Entropy

    • Homeostasis

M. Burns, 2007


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Characteristics of systems

  • Degree of ‘how you get there’

    • Equifinality – different initial circumstances/opportunities lead to similar outcomes

    • Multifinality – similar initial circumstances/opportunities lead to different outcomes

M. Burns, 2007


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Applications of Systems Theory

  • Family system (FCS 2000)

    • McCubbin’s family resiliency factors

  • Personal system

    • Recognize and make productive your strengths and abilities

    • Subsystems of physiological, behavioral, psychological, and social

M. Burns, 2007


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Application of Systems Theory

  • Household as a system

    • Several household tasks, such as doing the laundry, preparing meals, establishing schedules, child care issues

    • End result might be to save money, be more efficient, or…

M. Burns, 2007


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Meal preparation

Inputs

Throughputs

Outputs

M. Burns, 2007


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Economic Theory

  • Maximize satisfaction from decisions made based on given resources

  • Optimization

    • Obtaining the best result, such as maximizing your dollar

  • Satisficing – picking the first good alternative that presents itself

M. Burns, 2007


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The “risk” factor in decision making

  • Are you a risk taker?

  • Risk refers to the possibility of experiencing harm, suffering, danger or loss.

    • Apply risk to decision making within the home environment

M. Burns, 2007


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Types of risk

  • Functional/performance

  • Financial

  • Physical

  • Psychological

  • Social

  • Time

M. Burns, 2007


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Next Time

  • Complete VALS survey online at http://www.sric-bi.com/

    • Bring your results page and the description of your primary and secondary types to our next class session

    • Letter to significant other in your life re: the results and how they might/are impact/ing your personal relationship.

M. Burns, 2007


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