University of ballarat diploma of building design architectural materials february march 2009
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University of Ballarat DIPLOMA OF BUILDING DESIGN (ARCHITECTURAL) Materials FEBRUARY - MARCH 2009. Facilitator. My name is Richard Sapwell I have 30 years experience in building design Have operated my own building design firm for 18 years

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University of Ballarat DIPLOMA OF BUILDING DESIGN (ARCHITECTURAL) Materials FEBRUARY - MARCH 2009

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University of ballarat diploma of building design architectural materials february march 2009

University of BallaratDIPLOMA OF BUILDING DESIGN (ARCHITECTURAL)MaterialsFEBRUARY - MARCH 2009


Facilitator

Facilitator

  • My name is Richard Sapwell I have 30 years experience in building design

  • Have operated my own building design firm for 18 years

  • Have been accredited in building thermal performance assessment for 6 years and participated in pilot programs for FirstRate5, AccuRate and now the Householder Sustainability Assessments programs

  • Facilitated FirstRate5 and Home Sustainable Assessor training here at the University


Concrete

Concrete


Unit outline

Unit outline

  • Analyse characteristics of construction materials

  • Evaluate materials for their suitability for building projects

  • Recommend suitable materials


Analyse characteristics of construction materials

Analyse characteristics of construction materials

  • Manufacturing processes of a range of construction materials is researched to establish limitations of practical application

  • Quality standards and performance of materials are investigated for adherence to the Building Code of Australia (BCA), legislative requirements and the

    suitability for types of structures


Analyse characteristics of construction materials1

Analyse characteristics of construction materials

  • Materials are analysed to determine their application with regard to substructure, fixings, coatings or finishes, specific construction systems, visual effects and compatibility.

  • Manufacturing/conversion tolerances are detailed, including 'building in' tolerances to determine their

    impact on material properties


Analyse characteristics of construction materials2

Analyse characteristics of construction materials

  • Relevant information is recorded in a suitable format for future reference


Materials and manufacture

Materials and manufacture

  • On its own, concrete is very strong in compression (when it is being squashed)

    but very weak in tension (when it is being stretched)


Materials and manufacture1

Materials and manufacture

The components are:

• cement

• fine aggregate

• coarse aggregate

• water


General purpose cement

General-purpose cement

The classifications are:

• Type GP—general-purpose Portland cement;

• Type GB—general-purpose blended cement


Special purpose cement

Special-purpose cement

• Type HE—high early strength cement

• Type LH—low-heat cement

• Type SR—sulphate-resisting cement

• Type SL—shrinkage-limited cement

These cements may be Portland cement or

blended cement that complies with the

requirements set out in AS 3972—1997,

Table 1


Fine aggregate sand

Fine aggregate (sand)

Some types of sand available for concrete work are:

• pit sand

• river sand

• beach sand

• crusher fines


Coarse aggregate

Coarse aggregate

  • This consists of crushed rock such as basalt, granite, diorite, quartzite and the harder types of limestone

  • Special types of coarse aggregate, such as blast furnace slag, expanded shale and clay, may also be used


Coarse aggregate1

Coarse aggregate

A good coarse aggregate would be:

• dense and hard, not brittle

• durable and chemically inert

• clean, with no silt, clay or salt

• rough and of various sizes over 5 mm

• non-porous to help prevent water penetration of the finished concrete


Coarse aggregate2

Coarse aggregate

  • The average size of coarse aggregate for general domestic work would be up to 20 mm

  • for most structural building construction up to 75 mm

  • and for massive structures, like dams, up to 150 mm


Water

Water

As a guide, water that is

  • suitable to drink, or potable water, is recommended for concrete mixing


Reinforcement

Reinforcement

Basically, reinforcement is hot-rolled and/or tensile steel. It is used for its good tensile and shear properties which, combined with the good compressive properties of concrete, form a strong, versatile material with many positive characteristics.


Reinforcement1

Reinforcement

Basically, reinforcement is hot-rolled and/or tensile steel. It is used for its good tensile and shear properties which, combined with the good compressive properties of concrete, form a strong, versatile material with many positive characteristics


Reinforcement2

Reinforcement

Reinforcement is useful to counteract the various stresses applied to members

  • Shear

  • Tension

  • Compression

  • Torsion


Shear

Shear

Failure may be vertical, horizontal or diagonal


Tension

Tension

Occurs when a member is stretched or bent and the surface cracks or splits


Compression

Compression

Occurs when a member is stretched or bent and the surface cracks or splits


Torsion

Torsion

Occurs when a member has forces applied on opposite sides at each end and tends to twist

like a propeller


Water cement ratio

Water:cement ratio

  • the single most important factor relating to the end result of the mix


Enviro cement

Enviro-Cement

The key advantages of Enviro-Cement are:

  • Excellent performance for waste utilisation and immobilisation

  • Long term pH control and ideal levels

    • Carbonation self terminates other than in permeable materials (Eco-Cements)

  • Less or no bleed water

  • Lower cost for performance

  • Less corrosive, pollutants etc.


Enviro cement1

Enviro-Cement

  • More forgiving of poor workmanship

  • Improved durability and performance

    • Reduced permeability and greater density

    • Greater resistance to sulphate and chloride

  • Greater freeze-thaw resistance

  • Improved rheology

    • Easier placement

  • Reduced dimensional change including shrinkage

    • Reduced cracking, improved

      crack control

  • Reduced efflorescence


Eco cement

Eco-Cement

The key advantages of Eco-Cement are:

  • Improved durability and performance

    • Greater resistance to sulphate and chloride

    • Reduced corrosion of steel and other reinforcing

  • Reduced delayed reactions

    • Delayed hydration of dead burned lime and

      other minerals

  • Reduced delayed reactions

  • Delayed hydration of dead burned lime and other minerals

  • Reduced alkali aggregate and delayed ettringite reactions


Eco cement1

Eco-Cement

  • Higher tolerance of a wider range of

    aggregate material

  • Greater freeze-thaw resistance

    • Reduced alkali aggregate and delayed ettringite reactions

    • Higher tolerance of a wider range of aggregate material

    • Potentially lower cost

  • Carbon sequestration and waste utilisation on a massive scale

  • No expensive additives required

  • More forgiving of poor workmanship


Eco cement2

Eco-Cement

The key advantages of Eco-Cement are:

  • Improved rheology

  • Greater workability

  • Reduced dimensional change including shrinkage

  • Reduced cracking, improved crack control

  • Better bonding (e.g. to brick and tiles)

  • Greater fire resistance

  • Reduced efflorescence

  • Excellent performance for waste utilisation and immobilisation


Types of concrete

Types of concrete

  • Reinforced

  • Prestressed

  • No-fines concrete

  • Structural lightweight concrete

  • Foamed concrete

  • Water resistant concrete

  • Air-entrained concrete

  • Coloured concrete


Reinforcement bar types

Reinforcement bar types


Fabric r einforcement

Fabric reinforcement


Excursions

Eureka Pre-mix

1207 Latrobe Street

Delacombe

Sovereign Concrete

Products

192 Ring Road

Wendouree

excursions


Pre mixed concrete

Pre-mixed concrete

The plant control centre

Ready-mix plant


University of ballarat diploma of building design architectural materials february march 2009

Commercial projects

Residential projects


Concrete homes

Concrete homes

Architect: Richard Szklarz Architects Pty Ltd,

Location: 71/73 Rowland Street, Subiaco,

Perth

Architect: de Campo Architects

Location: Toorak, Victoria


Glass

Glass


Windows

Windows

  • Windows glass –

    http://www.ecospecifier.ae/knowledge_base/setting_priorities/eco_priority_guide_windows_glass

  • Windows frames –

    http://www.ecospecifier.ae/knowledge_base/setting_priorities/eco_priority_guide_windows_frames


Windows1

Windows

  • Windows glass –

    http://www.ecospecifier.ae/knowledge_base/setting_priorities/eco_priority_guide_windows_glass

  • Windows frames –

    http://www.ecospecifier.ae/knowledge_base/setting_priorities/eco_priority_guide_windows_frames


Windows2

Windows

glazing

in an insulated building can account for:

  • 80% of summer heat gain

  • 40% of winter heat loss


Windows3

Windows

glazingtransfers heat by:

  • conduction though the glass and frame

  • convection – air movement over surfaces

  • infiltration – air leakage through gaps

  • solar radiation through the glass

  • emittance of absorbed heat


Windows4

Windows

glazing has multiple components:

  • glass, frame, seals

  • performance is described:

    • for individual elements

      • ( glass values, frame values )

  • or

    • systemperformance

      • ( glazing unit as a whole )


Windows5

Windows

frames

  • can have a disproportionate impact on window conductance, e.g.:

    • single glazing (U-value 5.9)

    • standard aluminium frame (U-value 12.7)

    • frame area of 17%

  • a third of the total heat flow will be through the frame


Windows6

Windows

Frame fraction

  • system performancedepends on the “vision area” or “frame fraction”:

  • the ratio of glass to frame

  • frame fraction varies according to:

    • frame section dimensions

    • overall dimensions


Windows7

Windows

Frame fraction

  • If the frame is less conductive than the glass ( e.g. timber frame / single clear glass )

    increasing the frame fraction reduces the system conductance ( better performance )

  • If the frame is more conductive ( e.g. aluminium frame / single clear glass)

    increasing the frame fraction increases the system conductance ( lower performance )


Windows8

Windows

Frame fraction

  • If the frame is less conductive than the glass ( e.g. timber frame / single clear glass )

    increasing the frame fraction reduces the system conductance ( better performance )

  • If the frame is more conductive ( e.g. aluminium frame / single clear glass)

    increasing the frame fraction increases the system conductance ( lower performance )


Windows9

Windows

  • Conductance defined by U-value of:

  • individual elements ( frame or glass )

  • system ( complete unit )


Windows10

Windows

Conductance through frames

reduced by:

  • slim profile – less area for heat transfer

  • timber or PVC – lower conductivity

  • aluminium with thermal break


Windows11

Windows

Conductance through glazing

reduced by surface and cavity resistance:

  • emissivity of surfaces

  • number of surfaces

  • thickness of cavity

  • fill (e.g. argon in cavity)


Windows12

Windows

Conductance: indicative system U-values


Windows13

Windows

Radiation

Standard glass transmits:

  • most short-wave, solar radiation

  • little long-wave, infra red radiant heat from warm objects


Windows14

%

80

70

solar spectrum

blackbody spectrum 24°C

60

50

visible

Transmittance

40

30

20

10

0

50.0

10.0

5.0

1.0

0.5

long-wave infrared

solar infrared

visible

UV

Wavelength (micrometers)

Windows

  • Radiation – standard glass transmittance


Windows15

Windows

Radiation

Glass creates a “greenhouse effect”

  • solar heat is transmitted through glass

  • absorbed by internal mass

  • emitted as infrared radiation

  • most infrared radiation blocked by glass


Windows16

Windows

Radiation

  • transmitted, reflected or absorbed

solar radiation

transmitted solar radiation

absorption

reflection


Windows17

Windows

Radiation

  • absorbed heat is re-radiated (infrared)

solar radiation

transmitted solar radiation

absorption

IR radiation of absorbed heat

(inside)

IR radiation of absorbed heat

(outside)


Windows18

Windows

Radiation - emissivity

radiation of absorbed heat depends on emissivity of glass

  • low e coating on inside reduces heat gain by reducing radiation of absorbed heat

  • most beneficial on toned or tinted glass with high absorptance


Windows19

Windows

Radiation – emissivity

low E coating on inside reduces

radiation of absorbed heat


Windows20

Windows

Radiation - emissivity

  • low e coating on inside surface of glass reflects infrared heat:

    • reducing heat loss


Windows21

Windows

Solar radiation – reflectance

at right angles:

  • about 4% of solar radiation is reflected from each glass surface

  • clear single glazing, with two surfaces, reflects about 7.5%

  • clear double glazing reflects about 14.5%


Windows22

Windows

Solar radiation – angle of incidence

the amount of radiation transmitted varies depending on the ‘angle of incidence’

  • 0° means perpendicular to surface

  • 90° means parallel to the surface


Windows23

Windows

Solar radiation – angle of incidence

  • Reflectance increases as the angle of incidence increases.

  • It rises rapidly beyond 50°


Windows24

Windows

  • Solar radiation – angle of incidence


Windows25

Windows

  • Solar radiation – angle of incidence


Windows26

Windows

Solar radiation – angle of incidence

angle of incidence varies

  • the effective area of glass exposure

    to the sun

  • reflectance

85% transmitted

= 0.85 x 800 W/m2

= 680 W/m2

1 M2

800 W/m2


Windows27

Windows

  • performance certification

  • NFRC values are available for

  • generic window systems from:

  • www.wers.net

  • BCA Vol 1 part 3.12.2.1 provide

  • “worst case” performance values


Windows28

Windows

  • performance certification

  • glazing must comply with AS 2047

  • thermal performance rating is not in

  • Australian Standards – determined in accordance with industry recognised schemes


Windows29

Windows

  • SHGC & SC

  • Shading co-efficient (SC) has been replaced by SHGC

  • SHGC is proportion of total radiant heat.

  • SC is a comparison to 3mm clear glass.

  • e.g. 3mm clear glass

  • SC = 1

  • SHGC = 0.87


Windows30

Windows

  • SHGC – indicative system values


Windows31

Windows

reflective – SHGC 0.46

double clear – SHGC 0.77


Windows32

Windows

  • glazing types

  • low e coating

    • ‘hard coat’ (exposed grade) and

    • ‘soft coat’ (internal IGU grade only)

    • ‘clear’ low e coatings: low SHGC with high VT

    • large benefit used on inside of toned glass, to minimise heat gain or

    • inside double glazing to minimise heat loss


Windows33

Windows

  • performance certification

  • glazing must comply with AS 2047

  • thermal performance rating is not in

  • Australian Standards – determined in accordance with industry recognised schemes


Windows34

Windows

  • window treatments


Windows35

Windows

  • performance certification

  • prior to May 2006 : ANAC

  • Australian National Average Conditions

  • post May 2006 : NFRC

  • National Fenestration Rating Council

    • internationally recognised scheme for test conditions

  • ANAC and NFRC give different U

  • & SHGC values


Windows36

Windows

performance certification

Window Energy Rating Scheme

(WERS)

  • NFRC system U, SHGC

  • VT

  • air leakage

  • five-star rating of heating & cooling performance

  • WERS also includes skylights


  • Windows37

    Windows

    • performance certification

    • Window Energy Rating Scheme (WERS)

      • labels on window certifying performance and manufacturer


    Windows38

    Windows

    SHGC

    Solar heat gain coefficient

    • is the proportion of total incident solar radiant heat transmitted through glass at 0°

    • including inward radiation of absorbed solar heat


    Windows39

    Windows

    skylights

    • can admit three times as much light as a vertical window of the same dimension and three times more heat


    Windows40

    Windows

    • skylights – improved performance

    • double glazed, low E, fixed or opening


    Windows41

    Windows

    skylights – improved performance

    angular selective

    • prism cut internal lens surface

    • differential performance summer & winter


    Windows42

    Windows

    skylights – improved performance

    tubular, high specularity shaft

    • minimum heat gain from small opening

    • maximum light from lenses & reflective shaft


    Timber

    Timber


    Timber1

    Timber

    http://www.ecospecifier.ae/knowledge_base/setting_priorities/eco_priority_guide_timber_and_wood_products


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