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Epidemiology - Introduction. Study of patterns, distribution of disease (or other events). Cause/transmission. Develop strategies for prevention. Epidemiologists, “health detectives”. Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis, Vienna (19 th century), Puerperal fever. Epidemiology. Principles of Epidemiology

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Epidemiology introduction
Epidemiology - Introduction

Study of patterns, distribution of disease (or other events)

  • Cause/transmission

  • Develop strategies for prevention

Epidemiologists, “health detectives”

Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis, Vienna (19th century), Puerperal fever


Epidemiology
Epidemiology

  • Principles of Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological studies

  • Infectious Disease Surveillance

  • Trends in Disease

  • Nosocomial Infections


Principles of epidemiology
Principles of Epidemiology

  • Rate of Disease in a population

  • Reservoirs of Infection

  • Transmission

  • Influential Factors


Rates of disease in a population
Rates of Disease in a Population

Endemic - disease constantly present in a particular geographic area

Epidemic - disease with an unusually high occurrence

Pandemic - worldwide severe epidemic

Morbidity - illness (morbidity rate)

Rate vs. Absolute number

Mortality - death (mortality rate)


Outbreak– cluster of cases occurring during a brief time interval and affecting a specific population.


Spread prevention of disease

Transmission interval and affecting a specific population.

Spread/prevention of disease

Natural habitat

Reservoir


Reservoirs of infectious agents

Transmission interval and affecting a specific population.

Natural habitat

Reservoir

Reservoirs of infectious agents

  • Human reservoirs

Symptomatic

ex. cold virus

Asymptomatic carriers

ex. Neis. gon.,

Staph. aureus

**humans only reservoir - easiest to control**

  • Non-human animal reservoirs

poultry - Salmonella, Campylobacter


Reservoirs of infectious agents1

Transmission interval and affecting a specific population.

Natural habitat

Reservoir

Reservoirs of infectious agents

  • Human reservoirs

Symptomatic

ex. cold virus

Asymptomatic carriers

ex. Neis. gon,

Staph. aureus

**humans only reservoir - easiest to control**

  • Non-human animal reservoirs

poultry - Salmonella, Campylobacter

rodents - Yersinia pestis

bats and racoons - rabies virus


Reservoirs of infectious agents2

Transmission interval and affecting a specific population.

Natural habitat

Reservoir

Reservoirs of infectious agents

  • Human reservoirs

Symptomatic

ex. cold virus

Asymptomatic carriers

ex. Neis. gon,

Staph. aureus

**humans only reservoir - easiest to control**

  • Non-human animal reservoirs

poultry - Salmonella, Campylobacter

rodents - Yersinia pestis

bats and racoons - rabies virus

**animal reservoir - difficult to control**


Reservoirs of infectious agents3

Transmission interval and affecting a specific population.

Natural habitat

Reservoir

Reservoirs of infectious agents

  • Human reservoirs

Symptomatic

ex. cold virus

Asymptomatic carriers

ex. Neis. gon,

Staph. aureus

**humans only reservoir - easiest to control**

  • Non-human animal reservoirs

poultry - Salmonella, Campylobacter

rodents - Yersinia pestis

bats and racoons - rabies virus

**animal reservoir - difficult to control**

- diseases of animals transmitted to humans

Zoonoses/zoonotic diseases

  • Environmental reservoirs

soil - Clostridium species


Transmission

Transmission interval and affecting a specific population.

Natural habitat

Reservoir

Transmission

Horizontal (person to person)

Vertical (mother to fetus)

  • contact

direct contact

indirect contact

fomite

  • inanimate object, such as clothing, doorknob and so on

Importance of hand washing

droplet

Large microbe-laden respiratory droplets generally fall to the ground on farther

than 3 feet.

Importance of covering mouth when cough or sneeze


Transmission1
Transmission interval and affecting a specific population.

horizontal

Transmission

Natural habitat

vertical

Reservoir

  • contact

direct contact

indirect contact

fomite

- inanimate object

droplet

  • food and water

  • air

very difficult to control

  • vectors

arthropods

flea - Yersinia pestis

mosquito - Plasmodium species (malaria)


Black death plague yersinia pestis

flea interval and affecting a specific population.

flea

rodent

rodent

flea

“Black Death” (Plague) - Yersinia pestis

Killed 1/4 of the population of Europe between 1346 - 1350; 75% of the population in some cities.

Bubonic plague

  • Flea transmits Y. pestis to a human

  • Bacterium is carried to a lymph node.

  • Bubo develops within days

  • Y. pestis begins interfering with the inflammatory response - “arms itself”

  • Multiplying bacteria spill into bloodstream (septicemic plague); endotoxin  shock, DIC

  • 50 - 75% mortality (if untreated)


Influential factors
Influential Factors interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Dose

    There are few if any infections for which immunity

    is absolute.

  • Incubation Period

  • Population Characteristics

    Immunity, General Health, Age, Gender,

    Genetic Background


Epidemiological studies
Epidemiological studies interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Descriptive studies

Risk factors

Person

Place

Time

  • Analytical studies

  • Experimental Studies

Which risk factors were/are most relevant?


Epidemiological studies1
Epidemiological studies interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Descriptive studies

Person

Place

Time

Person


Epidemiological studies2
Epidemiological studies interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Descriptive studies

Person

Place

Time


Epidemiological studies3
Epidemiological studies interval and affecting a specific population.

1

2

  • Descriptive studies

Person

Place

Time

  • Rapid rise of sick people

  • Gradual rise


Experimental studies
Experimental studies interval and affecting a specific population.

Experimental studies are done mostly to

assess the value of a particular intervention

or treatment, such as antimicrobial drug

therapy.

  • Placebo

  • Double-blind


Rates of disease in a population1

Endemic interval and affecting a specific population.

Epidemic

Pandemic

Morbidity

Mortality

Rates of Disease in a Population


Rates of disease in a population2

Endemic interval and affecting a specific population. - disease constantly present in a particular geographic area

Epidemic - disease with an unusually high occurrence

Pandemic - worldwide severe epidemic

Morbidity - illness (morbidity rate)

Mortality - death (mortality rate)

Rates of Disease in a Population


Infectious disease surveillance
Infectious Disease Surveillance interval and affecting a specific population.

CDC - National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • MMWR - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

  • WHO - World Health Organization

    • Weekly Epidemiological Record


Trends in disease
Trends in Disease interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Reduction & Eradication of Disease

  • Emerging Diseases


Trends in disease1
Trends in Disease interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Reduction & Eradication of Disease

    - Improved sanitation

    - Reservior & vector control

    - Vaccination

    - Antibiotic treatment

    (Smallpox, eradicated globally)


Trends in disease2
Trends in Disease interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Emerging Disease

    - Microbial Evolution, drug-resistance strain

    - Population expansion

    - Mass distribution & importation of food

    - Climate change


Nosocomial infections hospital acquired infections 5 6 patients 4 5 billion cost
Nosocomial Infections interval and affecting a specific population. (hospital-acquired infections)5-6% patients, $4.5 billion cost

Enterococcus species. Part of the normal intestinalflora

urinary, wound & blood infections

Escherichia coli. Part of the normal intestinal flora

Most common cause nosocomial urinary infection

Pseudomonas species. Grow in moist environment

Staphylococcus species. Normal skin flora

Common cause of nosocomial pneumonia and surgical site infection


Epidemiology1
Epidemiology interval and affecting a specific population.

  • Principles of Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological studies

  • Infectious Disease Surveillance

  • Trends in Disease

  • Nosocomial Infections


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