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Chapter 4 Map. Thursday, Nov 3135 – 140 Monday, Nov 7140 – 143 Tuesday, Nov 8144 – 149 Wednesday, Nov 9150 – 156 Thursday, Nov 10156 – 162 Friday, Nov 11Remembrance Day Monday, Nov 14163 – 166 Tuesday, Nov 15166 – 172 Wednesday, Nov 16 172 – 179 (staff meeting)

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Chapter 4 map

Chapter 4 Map

  • Thursday, Nov 3135 – 140

  • Monday, Nov 7140 – 143

  • Tuesday, Nov 8144 – 149

  • Wednesday, Nov 9150 – 156

  • Thursday, Nov 10156 – 162

  • Friday, Nov 11Remembrance Day

  • Monday, Nov 14163 – 166

  • Tuesday, Nov 15166 – 172

  • Wednesday, Nov 16 172 – 179 (staff meeting)

  • Thursday, Nov 17179 – 189

  • Tuesday, Nov 22Quiz/Study Guide and Cards due


Chapter 4 the developing person

Chapter 4The Developing Person

  • Developmental psychologists study how we change through our life - physically, mentally and socially

  • 3 main issues are nature/nurture, continuity/stages and stability/change


Prenatal development and the newborn conception 136

Prenatal Development and the Newborn - Conception (136)

  • Women are born with all their eggs, but only 1 in 5000 will mature and be released

  • Men begin producing sperm at puberty and then continue for life (but the rate of production lessens with age)

  • When one sperm (of about 200 million) penetrates the egg, the egg’s surface blocks the others and pulls the sperm in to the egg. The nuclei of the egg and sperm fuse to create one cell.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QnnTSvATOpc&feature=related


Prenatal development 136

Prenatal Development (136)

  • Zygote - a fertilized egg - fewer than 50% survive beyond 2 weeks

  • Zygote begins as a single cell and divides

  • Within 1 week, once the zygote is 100 cells, the cells begin to differentiate (specialize in structure and function)


Prenatal development

Prenatal Development

  • 10 days past conception - zygote’s outer part attaches to uterine wall forming the placenta. The zygote’s inner cells become the embryo


Prenatal development1

Prenatal Development

  • 6 weeks after conception - organs form

  • 9 weeks ---- embryo is now a fetus

  • By 6 months the fetus is viable. It can hear.

  • At birth the infant prefers the mom’s voice (Bushnel 1992)


Teratogens 137

Teratogens (137)

  • Teratogens are harmful agents (viruses, chemicals) that cross the placenta and harm the embryo or fetus

  • Drugs, alcohol, pollutants

  • Brennan (1999) found correlation between violent crime rates of men and their mothers’ smoking even after controlling for economic status and father criminality

  • http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message1630572/pg1

  • Clip on Emanuel Kelly


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder 138

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (138)

  • No safe amount to drink while pregnant

  • Alcohol depresses the central nervous systems of mother and fetus

  • FAS marked by a small, misproportioned head, and lifelong brain abnormalities.

  • About 4 in 10 mothers who drink during pregnancy have babies with FAS


The competent newborn 138

The Competent Newborn (138)

  • Babies are born with reflexes that help them survive

  • Withdraw limb to escape pain

  • Turn head to get out from under a cloth

  • Rooting reflex

  • Sucking reflex


Do babies know

Do Babies Know?

  • Prior to 1960s it was thought (ex. William James) that babies experienced just “blooming, buzzing confusion”.

  • As neuroscience progressed, we learned that babies know a lot and can tell us a lot if we ask them to respond by gazing, sucking, turning heads


Competent newborn 138

Competent Newborn (138)

  • Babies are born preferring sights and sounds that help social responsiveness

  • Ex. Newborns turn heads to human voices and prefer the mother’s voice

  • Ex. Newborns gaze longer at human-like faces (Johnson and Morton 1991)

  • Ex. They gaze at objects 8 to 10 inches away (Maurer 1998)

  • Ex. They prefer the smell of mom’s bra (MacFarlane 1978)


Habituation 139

Habituation (139)

  • Def - decreased responsiveness after repeated stimulation

  • Novelty Preference - having habituated to the old stimulus, newborns preferred gazing at new stimulus


Habituation 1391

Habituation (139)

  • Using the concepts of habituation and novelty preference the dog head/cat body study (Spencer Quinn 1997) shows:

    • 1. Infants can see

    • 2. Infants can remember

    • 3. Infants focus on the face (they gaze longer at the new dog head/cat body after looking at cat heads)

  • http://www.cse.iitk.ac.in/users/se367/readings/quinn-doran-09_infant-attention-in-categorizing-dogs-cats-gaze-at-heads.pdf (Article on head/body study)


Applied psychology

Applied Psychology

  • Using the concepts of “habituation” of “novelty preference”, how should parents buy toys for infants?


Infancy and childhood 140

Infancy and Childhood (140)

  • Brain and mind develop together

  • Association areas of the cortex (linked to memory, thinking, language) are the last brain areas to develop.

  • An infant’s biological development underlies his psychological development


Infancy and childhood 1401

Infancy and Childhood (140)

  • Brain and mind develop together

  • Association areas of the cortex (linked to memory, thinking, language) are the last brain areas to develop.

  • An infant’s biological development underlies his psychological development


Brain development 140

Brain Development (140)

  • At birth you have most of your 23 billion nerve cells, but, your nervous system is immature

  • After birth neural networks develop which allow us to walk, talk, remember


Brain development 1401

Brain Development (140)

  • age 3 to 6 - frontal lobe neural networks are most active

  • Age 6 to puberty - neural networks supporting language and agility are most active


Maturation 140

Maturation (140)

  • A genetically designed biological growth process

  • Enables orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience

  • Maturation sets the basic course of development, experience adjusts it.


Maturation infant memory 141

Maturation & Infant Memory (141)

  • Our lack of neural connections accounts for our lack of memory prior to our 3rd year

  • We have little conscious memory prior to 3 or 4

  • (Newcombe 2000) 10 yr olds will recognize only 1 in 5 of their preschool friends’ pictures but they will physiologically respond (skin perspiration) to their former preschool friends’ pictures


Motor development 141 maturation v training

Motor Development (141)Maturation v. Training

  • Our developing brain enables physical coordination

  • the sequence of motor development is universal (roll then sit; creep then walk) but the timing is not

  • Baby development reflects a maturing nervous system NOT imitation or training. (evidence - blind babies)

  • Genes play a major role - identical twins tend to sit up together!


Cognitive development 143

Cognitive Development (143)

  • By 6 months of age we can comprehend

    • Permanence

    • number

    • simple physical laws


Jean piaget 143

Jean Piaget (143)

  • Studying children’s IQ’s in the 1920’s and noticed that children of the same age tended to give the same wrong answers

  • He concluded that children know differently not less than adults

  • He theorized that children develop cognitively in stages


Schemas 143

Schemas (143)

  • Piaget said that we make sense of our world using schemas

  • Schema - concept/mental mold (ex. cats) that we use to organize our experiences

  • Assimilation - interpreting new experiences by putting them into existing schemas (dog is cat)

  • Accommodation - adjust our schemas to fit new experiences (“cat” doesn’t include all animals)


Piaget s stage theory of cognition 144

Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognition (144)

  • Cognition - all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating.

  • Piaget believed children’s cognition develops in stages - critiques say it develops more continuously.

  • Critiques also say that Piaget underestimated children’s cognitive abilities


Piaget s theory sensory motor stage 144

Piaget’s Theory Sensory Motor Stage (144)

  • 0 - 2 years of age

  • Learn through motor (movement) and senses

  • Develop object permanence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCdLNuP7OA8&feature=related and stranger anxiety


Piaget s theory pre operational stage 146

Piaget’s TheoryPre-Operational Stage (146)

  • 2 to 6/7 years old

  • Too young to perform mental operations

  • Fail conservation test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B65EJ6gMmA4

  • Egocentric - see the world from their point of view

  • Begin to develop “theory of the mind”

  • Begin to be able to think in words (talk through problems to themselves)


Theory of the mind 147

Theory of the Mind (147)

  • Pre-operation children begin to develop theory of the mind - the ability to think of other people as thinking individuals - the ability to infer what others might be thinking or feeling

  • Autism - a disorder characterized by deficient communication and social interaction - marked by an impaired theory of the mind


Piaget s theory concrete operational stage 148

Piaget’s TheoryConcrete Operational Stage (148)

  • 7 to 11 years old

  • Understand the concept of conservation

  • Can think in words

  • Grasp math and logic


Piaget s theory formal operational stage 148

Piaget’s TheoryFormal Operational Stage (148)

  • 12 years and older

  • Move from concrete to abstract thinking

  • Can imagine and use symbols

  • Can hypothesize and deduce consequences

  • Think logically


Piaget s theory

Piaget’s Theory

  • Sensory motor

  • Pre-operational

  • Concrete operational

  • Formal operational


Criticisms of piaget s theory 149

Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory (149)

  • Continuity verses stage development

  • Underestimating children’s development

  • Piaget did get the sequence of the milestones right


Social development 150

Social Development (150)

  • Aristotle - “man is a social animal”

  • Stranger Anxiety - emerges around 8 months of age when we become mobile ----- why???

  • Attachment - mutual bond infant-parent bond


Origins of attachment 150

Origins of Attachment (150)

  • Attachment requires:

    • Comfort/body contact

    • Familiarity

    • responsiveness


Body contact 151

Body Contact (151)

  • Nourishment alone is not enough

  • In a study of monkeys, Harry Harlow separated the infants from the mothers for sanitation - the infants bonded to blankets http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ctGWQHa80ew&feature=related

  • In experiments with wire/feeding mothers and cloth/non-feeding mothers, Harlow found that the babies attached to the cloth mothers using them as safe havens when distressed and a secure base from which to explorehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlfOecrr6kI


Familiarity 151

Familiarity (151)

  • Humans do not imprint, but do become attached to people/things that become familiar to them

  • Critical Period - optimal period when a child will learn best and most easily - ex. Shortly after birth child will bond to parent given the needed exposure to that parent

  • Imprinting (Lorenz, 1937) - a gosling will imprint to the first moving thing it sees after birth.


Responsiveness 152

Responsiveness (152)

  • Parent notices what the baby needs and responds to that need consistently, timely, lovingly

  • Securely attached infants are happy in mom’s presence, are distressed when she leaves, can be calmed by mom and courageously explore http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fg9QCeA4FJs (Scared Harlow Monkey)

  • Insecure infants are the opposite - are often clingy


Responsiveness studies

Responsiveness - Studies

  • Ainsworth (1979) strange situation test - sensitive mothers had infants who displayed secure attachment (and vice versa) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HH_swXJLQI4

  • Van den Boom (1990) experiment varied parenting styles (nurture) while controlling temperament (nature). 68% of the difficult babies became securely attached if parents had sensitive response training. Only 28% of the difficult babies attached when the parent didn’t get the training.


Secure attachment studies

Secure Attachment Studies

  • Harry Harlow learned that the insecurely attached monkeys were terrified in new situations


Fathers and attachment 153

Fathers and Attachment (153)

  • Expectant fathers’ sex hormones change (Story 2000)

  • Absent fathers put children at increased risk for psych and social disorders after controlling for income and education differences (Myers 2000)


Secure attachment 154

Secure Attachment (154)

  • Socially competent

  • Confident

  • Attack challenges with more persistence and enthusiasm

  • More responsive and outgoing to other children

  • Develop the ability to trust that effects them lifelong (Erik Erikson’s 8 stage theory)


Insecure attachment 154

Insecure Attachment (154)

  • Withdrawn

  • Frightened

  • Emotionally scarred

  • Harlow’s monkeys either cowered or lashed out to other monkeys as adults, were incapable of mating, were abusive as parents if artificially mated

  • But, (Helmreich 1992) also found that most abused children do not grow to be abusers/criminals - they are more resilient


Insecure attachment 155

Insecure Attachment (155)

  • Ferris (1996) found that hamsters who were repeatedly threatened/attacked when young grew to be adults who were cowards with same-size hamsters and bullies with smaller hamsters. Their serotonin levels were lower.

  • Early abuse and excessive exposure to stress hormones also can permanently alter the development of the limbic system


Disruption of attachment 155

Disruption of Attachment (155)

  • Infants moved to new homes before 6 months of age or between 6 and 16 months will both have initial problems eating, sleeping and relating to new parents - but by age 10 both groups are similar - you can re-attach!

  • Frequent changes of homes are much more damaging to a child’s attachment


Day care and attachment 156

Day Care and Attachment (156)

  • Erel (2000) finds no major effect on attachment

  • A 2002 study of 1100 children is care from 1 month of age, found that by 4 1/2 years old the children had slightly advanced thinking and language skills but were also more aggressive and defiant

  • Family qualities, child temperament and goodness-of-fit appear to be more important to a child’s attachment than whether or not they go to daycare.

  • Cultures vary in child rearing - “it takes a village to raise a child”


Self concept 156

Self-Concept (156)

  • In infancy, the major social achievement is attachment

  • In childhood, it is developing a positive self of self.

  • Self-concept - a sense of your own identity and personal worth


Self awareness self recognition

Self-Awareness/Self-Recognition

  • In 1877, Charles Darwin thought that self-awareness begins when we recognize our image in a mirror

  • At 6 months old the baby thinks the mirror image is another baby

  • Butterworth (1992) - by 18 months the baby with a spot put on its face will touch its own face when he sees the mirror image - they have a schema for their own face and know that the spot doesn’t belong


Self recognition leads to self concept

Self-Recognition Leads to Self Concept

  • By 5 or 6 kids describe themselves by gender, group membership, psychological traits and in comparison to other kids.

  • By 8 to 10 self concept is a stable trait

  • Self concept affects your actions and expectations


Child rearing practices 157

Child Rearing Practices (157)

  • Authoritative Parents

  • Authoritarian Parents

  • Permissive Parents

    (Baumrind 1996)

  • All differ in rules, reasons for rules, communication, negotiation, warmth, expectations

  • All differ in the results- children’s self-esteem, social competence, self-reliance, self control


Correlation is not causation

Correlation is not Causation

  • Are there other reasons for how children turn out other than parenting style?

    • Does a child’s temperament elicit a parenting style?

    • Are authoritative parents more educated? Wealthy? Less stressed?


Adolescence 159

Adolescence (159)

  • Between childhood and adulthood

  • Starts with the beginning of puberty - sexual maturity (this is happening earlier)

  • Ends with independent adult status (this is happening later)


Adolescence

Adolescence

  • Ellis (1999) study showing that obesity and father absence leading to earlier puberty.

  • Evolutionists say when body fat can support pregnancy and when parent-child bonds are weak a female would be disposed to reproduce earlier


Stanley hall 160

Stanley Hall (160)

  • One of the 1st psychologists to describe adolescence

  • Tension between biological maturity and social dependence creates a period of “storm and stress”


Adolescence physical development 161

Adolescence - Physical Development (161)

  • Puberty - period of sexual maturation

  • Primary Sexual Characteristics - body parts required for reproduction (ovaries, testes, genitals)

  • Secondary Sexual Characteristics - visible body parts not needed for reproduction


Adolescence girls and boys

Adolescence - Girls and Boys

  • Girls usually develop earlier but boys usually outgrow them in height by about 14

  • Puberty landmark in girls is menarche

  • Puberty landmark in boys is spermarche - first ejaculation (usually nocturnal)

  • The sequence of physical changes (breast then menarche) is more predictable than the timing


Early maturation

Early Maturation

  • In boys is usually positive - being large, athletic earlier

  • In girls can be more problematic


Brain development adolescence 162

Brain Development - Adolescence (162)

  • Until puberty brain cells increase their connections

  • During puberty there is a “pruning” of unused connections

  • During puberty frontal lobe development lags behind limbic system explaining impulsiveness, emotionality, risky behaviors


Adolescent cognitive development 163

Adolescent Cognitive Development (163)

  • Ability to reason increases

  • Learn to think about their thinking and other’s thinking

  • Become more critical about society, parents, themselves


Adolescent reasoning power 163

Adolescent Reasoning Power (163)

  • Piaget - Formal Operational Stage - abstract logic develops

  • They become capable of thinking about how others might think and how this may differ from how they think


Adolescent morality 164

Adolescent Morality (164)

  • Piaget said that cognitive development leads to moral judgments

  • Lawrence Kohlberg agreed with Piaget

  • Kohlberg studied moral reasoning (the thinking that occurs as we consider right from wrong). As our thinking develops, so does our moral reasoning powers.


Lawrence kohlberg 164

Lawrence Kohlberg (164)

  • Three-stage moral development theory

  • 1. Pre Conventional - under 9 - do good to avoid punishment or get rewarded

  • 2. Conventional - early adolescence - do good to care for others and follow rules/law

  • 3. Post Conventional - early adult - do good to affirm “rights” and personal ideals


Criticism of kohlberg 165

Criticism of Kohlberg (165)

  • Not many problems with his first 2 stages

  • The post conventional stage is often considered too white/Western European/middle class/individualistic.

  • Also criticized for being biased against communal cultures and women who may be more relational.


Moral feeling 165

Moral Feeling (165)

  • Jonathan Haidt has a “social intuitionist” account of morality - he says that moral feelings precede moral reasoning. Moral judgment involves quick gut feelings which then trigger moral reasoning.

  • In other words, moral reasoning aims to convince others of what we intuitively feel.


Moral action 165

Moral Action (165)

  • Moral action is doing the right thing

  • Depends on social influences (Nazi Germany)

  • We need to teach empathy, self-discipline, delayed gratification, moral behavior

  • Moral education must focus on thinking, feeling and action

  • Youth Offender program example


Social development 166

Social Development (166)

  • Erik Erikson - psychosocial development theory based on 8 stages where we face certain crisis/tasks.


Forming an identity 167

Forming an Identity (167)

  • Adolescents are in the 5th stage where they must form their identities or face role confusion

  • Erikson had a Jewish mother and Danish father - he was scorned as a Jew in school but mocked as a Gentile in the synagogue because of his blond hair and blue eyes. No wonder he figured out the importance of identity to an adolescent!

  • Adolescents can assume the parent’s identity, an anti-parent identity or they may try out different identities depending on the time and place


Developing intimacy 168

Developing Intimacy (168)

  • 6th stage of Erikson’s theory - follows the adolescent stage of identity formation


Intimacy and gender 168

Intimacy and Gender (168)

  • Boys - communicate to solve issues

  • Girls - communicate to form connections

  • Boys - more dominant and unexpressive as adolescents

  • Girls - less assertive and more flirtatious as adolescents

  • Older males - less domineering and more empathetic

  • Older females - more assertive and self confident


Male answer syndrome

Male Answer Syndrome

  • Traci Giuliano (1998) found that asked difficult questions, men are more likely than women to hazard answers rather than admit that they don’t know the answer


Separating from parents 169

Separating From Parents (169)

  • During adolescence conflicts between adolescent and parents increases and the closeness decreases

  • Peer influence increases and parent influences decreases

  • Teens generally feel ok about their parents - the better this relationship, usually the better the teen is with his peers, school performance, etc


Selection effect

Selection Effect

  • Teens tend to choose friends who are like themselves, who share their interests


Emerging adult

Emerging Adult

  • This is a relatively new term used to describe the adult in his mid to late 20’s who is past adolescence but not yet an independent adult


Adulthood physical development 172

Adulthood Physical Development (172)

  • Strength, reaction time, sensory keenness and cardiac output crest at the mid-twenties (earlier for women) and then gradually declines

  • Health and exercise become more important than raw age

  • Physical changes (ie. wrinkles) have psychological effects


Adulthood and fertility 172

Adulthood and Fertility (172)

  • Fertility decreases

  • Women go through menopause - a total loss of fertility possibility - the end of menstruation - lower estrogen - varying psychological effects

  • Men do not have a total loss of fertility - their sperm count and speed gradually declines


Take the true false quiz on page 174

Take the True/False Quiz on Page 174


Life expectancy 174

Life Expectancy (174)

  • 1950 - 49 years

  • 1996 - 67 years

  • Current in Canada - 80 years

  • Women outlive men

  • This coupled with a declining birth rate means WHO will look after me in the home?


Sensory abilities 175

Sensory Abilities (175)

  • Visual sharpness (pupils shrink and the lenses thicken), adapting to light levels (65 year old needs 3x the light to see as well as a 20 year old), muscle strength, reaction time, stamina, hearing, distance perception, sense of smell all decline with age


Health 176

Health (176)

  • Good News

    • less likely to suffer short-term illnesses (cold/flu) because of a lifetime of antibodies

    • Only 5% of 65+ live in institutions

    • If you are active, new cells and new connections develop

    • Physical activity enhances mental ability


Health 1761

Health (176)

  • Bad News

    • Immune system decreases and cancer and pneumonia rates increase

    • Neural processing slows therefore reaction time decreases

    • Car accidents for +75 increase

    • Brain regions for memory atrophy and shrink


Dementia and alzheimer s 177

Dementia and Alzheimer’s (177)

  • Dementia means mental erosion. It can be caused by small strokes, brain tumors, alcoholism or Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Alzheimer’s strikes about 3% of the world’s population by the age of 75

  • Alzheimer’s is a progressive, irreversible brain disorder leading to deterioration of memory, reasoning, language and physical functioning. Patients have reduced acetylcholine and gene abnormalities.

  • Alzheimer’s is NOT the normal aging process


Aging cognitive development 178

Aging Cognitive Development (178)

  • As we age we remember recent happenings but also what we did in our 2nd 2 decades (teens and twenties)

  • Recall (younger people better) v. Recognition memory (young and old the same)

  • We remember meaningful information better than trivial


Aging and memory

Aging and Memory

  • Prospective memory (pick up the mile) is strongest with memory triggers

  • Time based task memory (take a pill at 3) and Habitual task memory (take a pill every day) are more of a challenge as you age

  • Our memories vary as compared to others our own age.


Aging and intelligence 180

Aging and Intelligence (180)

  • Cross Sectional studies - study people of different ages today

  • Longitudinal studies - the same people are studied today and then again in the future


Aging and intelligence 1801

Aging and Intelligence (180)

  • Cross-sectional Wechsler IQ tests see older people as scoring lower than the younger people

  • Longitudinal IQ tests show that a person’s IQ either remains the same or slightly increases over your life.

  • Explanation???????


Chapter 4 map

Why?

  • Cross sectional study compares people of different eras - compares well-educated with less-educated people - compares wealthy and poor people

  • Longitudinal studies study people who survive into their futures - are they healthier and therefore less likely to have IQ decline?

  • Or is the IQ test really about speed, vocabulary, the ability to process information?????


Crystal v fluid intelligence 181

Crystal v. Fluid Intelligence (181)

  • Crystal intelligence is about knowing stuff - vocabulary, facts, etc. This increases with age. This is why I am smarter than you!

  • Fluid intelligence is the ability to reason speedily and abstractly, the ability to problem solve. This decreases with age.

  • Math peaks in the 20s/30s. Literature peaks in the 50s and beyond.


Social development 182

Social Development (182)

  • Research debunks the myth of the mid-life crisis

  • Because social clocks are different in different cultures, we question theories that age causes stress.

  • Social Clock?????


Adult commitments 183

Adult Commitments (183)

  • Erik Erikson’s theory says adulthood is the time we struggle with

  • intimacy v. isolation and

  • generativity v. stagnation


Love 183

Love (183)

  • Well-educated/post 20 year old marriages are more likely to succeed

  • There is a positive correlation between couples who first live together and later divorce


Love and marriage

Love and Marriage

  • Marriage is a predictor of happiness, health, sexual satisfaction and income

  • Marriage also predicts crime rate, delinquency, emotional disorders among children

  • Gottman (1994) 5 to 1 positive to negative interactions predicts marriage success

  • The empty nest is usually a happy nest


Work 185

Work (185)

  • During the first 2 years of college, few can predict their career

  • The quality of your role (mother) is as important as what your role is (career woman)


Well being and life span 185

Well Being and Life Span (185)

  • Most common regret - not taking one’s education seriously

  • Other regrets - family relationships/things you didn’t do

  • Old people report as much happiness and satisfaction with life as young people do

  • Csikszentmihalyi (1984) - beeper experiment - teens report more varying moods - adults report less extreme but more enduring moods


Death and dying 186

Death and Dying (186)

  • Erikson’s last stage is integrity v. despair

  • Grief on the death of a spouse or child is greatest when the death is sudden and breaks the social clock

  • Look at 187 for some myths on death and grief

  • BIBLE stands for????


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