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Chapter 26 – Section 4: Two Nations Live on the Edge

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Chapter 26 – Section 4: Two Nations Live on the Edge. v s. Progression of Nuclear Technology. United States detonates H-Bomb in November of 1952 Soviets detonate their H-Bomb in August of 1953 The Nuclear Arms Race now starts Make as many “bombs” as fast as you can.

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progression of nuclear technology
Progression of Nuclear Technology
  • United States detonates H-Bomb in November of 1952
  • Soviets detonate their H-Bomb in August of 1953
  • The Nuclear Arms Race now starts
    • Make as many “bombs” as fast as you can
the policy of brinksmanship
The Policy of Brinksmanship
  • Eisenhower is POTUS in 1952
    • John Foster Dulles is his Secretary of State
  • Felt we could stop the spread of communism by promising use of force
  • Brinksmanship is being prepared to go to the brink of an all out nuclear war
  • Schools now practice air-raid drills
    • People build bomb and fallout shelters
massive nuclear retaliation
Massive Nuclear Retaliation
  • Ike proposes a “new look” policy of containment
    • Relies on massive retaliation
  • We now start testing “bombs” like crazy
  • Nuclear buildup has economic roots
    • Nuclear proliferation is cheaper
  • Other countries get in on the nuclear game
    • France and Great Britain
what is mad
What is MAD?
  • MAD is mutually assured destruction
  • If both sides attack with nuclear weapons there will be no victor
    • Only widespread destruction
  • Emerges from the ideas of deterrence
    • If the only option is MAD we won’t use “bombs”
  • Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb
nuclear accidents abound
Nuclear Accidents Abound
  • In April of 1950 a B-29 crashes with a “bomb”
  • In March of 1956 a B-27 crashes into the sea with a “bomb”
  • In 1958 an atomic bomb slips out of a B-47 and crushes a house
    • Similar event in New Mexico with an H-Bomb
  • We now begin to question our policies
    • Are brinksmanship and MAD good ideas?
thinking the unthinkable
Thinking the Unthinkable
  • In 1960 Herman Kahn writes Thinking about the Unthinkable
    • Nuclear war is winnable
    • We must accept losses of 40 million people
    • Stock an underground system with elite people
  • Other groups challenge the testing of “bombs”
    • Finding elevated radioactivity in babies teeth
eisenhower and the cia
Eisenhower and the CIA
  • In Iran in 1951 Mossadegh nationalizes oil
  • Britain stops buying their oil
  • CIA gives millions to pro-Shah supporters
  • In Guatemala in 1954 land is redistributed
  • CIA trains an army and invades
  • Guatemalan army refuses to defend president
the warsaw pact and geneva
The Warsaw Pact and Geneva
  • Tensions thaw a little after Stalin’s death
  • Tensions freeze again when West Germany is allowed to rearm
  • USSR and seven countries form the Warsaw Pact
  • Eisenhower meets with Soviet leaders at Geneva
    • He proposes an “open skies” policy
  • Policy rejected but seen as a step towards peace
israel creating a new nation
Israel: Creating a New Nation
  • Nation of Israel is created from Palestine
    • Gave Jewish people their holy land
  • One of the few issues we agree with Soviet Union on
    • Both saw the horrible tragedies of the Holocaust
  • Angered Palestinian Arabs and Muslims
    • Still see this tension today
the suez war
The Suez War
  • In 1955 Egypt wants to dam the Nile
  • Nasser of Egypt plays both USSR and USA
  • Dulles pulls our money when he finds out
  • Nasser nationalizes the canal
  • Refused to let Israeli ships through
  • UN gets involved to stop the fighting
  • Egypt retains control of the Suez Canal
revolt in hungary
Revolt in Hungary!
  • An uprising breaks out in Hungary in 1956
    • Led by Imre Nagy
  • The Soviet response is quick and brutal
    • November 1956
    • Kill 30,000 Hungarians
  • What about the Truman Doctrine?
    • Didn’t apply to ridding communism from satellite states
space the final frontier
Space: The Final Frontier
  • Nikita Khrushchev will seize power in USSR
    • Peaceful coexistence
  • Soviet Union jumps to an early space lead
    • Sputnik is launched in October of 1957
  • United States now throws money at NASA
    • Launch our first satellite on January 31, 1958
  • Fund education in math and sciences
cold war takes to the skies the u 2 incident
Cold War Takes to the Skies: The U-2 Incident
  • “Open skies” policy had been rejected
  • We fly secret, high altitude missions of USSR
    • We use the U-2 plane for this
  • Soviets had been aware of our flights since 1958
    • Lacked the technology to stop them
  • Ike wishes to stop the flights
    • Upcoming summit with Khrushchev
cold war takes to the skies the u 2 incident1
Cold War Takes to the Skies: The U-2 Incident
  • May 1st, 1960 – Gary Francis Powers is shot down
    • Shot down by a surface to air missile
  • Parachutes to the ground and is captured
    • Sentenced to ten years in prison in USSR
    • Released in prisoner exchange in 18 months
  • Eisenhower denies that we were spying
    • Says we were studying the weather
    • Eventually admits it but refuses to apologize
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