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Navi Rutgers University 2012 Design Presentation. Mechanical Design. Entirely custom chassis Designed using SolidWorks 80/20 a luminum framing 0.25” polycarbonate casing 240 lb , including payload Brushed DC drive motors 80 W, 500 CPR optical encoders 5.6 mph maximum speed

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mechanical design
Mechanical Design
  • Entirely custom chassis
    • Designed using SolidWorks
    • 80/20 aluminum framing
    • 0.25” polycarbonate casing
    • 240 lb, including payload
  • Brushed DC drive motors
    • 80 W, 500 CPR optical encoders
    • 5.6 mph maximum speed
    • 27% maximum grade
  • Actively air cooled by six fans
    • 100 cfm airflow through chassis
    • Modeled using CFD simulation
electrical power distribution
Electrical: Power Distribution
  • Optima YellowTop Battery (×2)
    • 12 V lead acid batteries (in series)
    • 35 A·h capacity
  • Low power consumption
    • 400 W loaded, 215 W idle
    • 2+ hour battery life
  • 24 V, 12 V, and 5 V DC buses
    • 85%+ efficiency DC-DC regulators
    • Isolated grounds limit noise
  • Dashboard
    • Switches for major components
    • Dot matrix display status indicator
software architecture
Software Architecture
  • Use and contribute to open source software when possible
  • Built on the Robot Operating System (ROS) framework
  • Three-dimensional Gazebo simulation of driving and sensors

Localization

Planning

Gazebo

Gazebo

Perception

localization sensors
Localization: Sensors

GPS: Novatel ProPak V3

  • 2 Hz sample rate
  • 15 cm accuracy (1 sigma)
  • OmniSTAR HP corrections

Compass: PNI Fieldforce TCM

  • 50 Hz sample rate
  • 0.3° heading accuracy (RMS)
  • 360° tilt correction

Odometry: US Digital Encoders

  • 500 CPR, 0.5 mm resolution
localization extended kalman filter
Localization: Extended Kalman Filter
  • Fuse sensors to estimate pose
    • Odometry: fast, relativepose
    • Compass: fast absolute orientation
    • GPS: accurate absolute position
  • Non-linear “turn-drive-turn” model

(Source: Probabilistic Robotics)

Simulation

Hardware

perception sensors
Perception: Sensors

Laser: Hokuyo UTM-30LX

  • 40 Hz sample rate
  • 240° field of view
  • 30 m maximum range

Cameras: AVT Manta G-125C (×2)

  • 15 FPS, synchronized
  • 646 × 482 resolution
  • 90° × 65° wide angle lens
  • 130° combined field of view
perception sensors1
Perception: Sensors

Laser: Hokuyo UTM-30LX

  • 40 Hz sample rate
  • 240° field of view
  • 30 m maximum range

Cameras: AVT Manta G-125C (×2)

  • 15 FPS, synchronized
  • 646 × 482 resolution
  • 90° × 65° wide angle lens
  • 130° combined field of view
perception line detection
Perception: Line Detection
  • Uses the HSV color space to limit the impact of illumination
  • Width filter is generated from the calibrated camera matrix
  • Pipelined with left and right images processed in parallel
  • Total processing time is 100 msper image pair
  • Pipelining allows for a 50% increase in sample rate

Width Filter

Color Transformation

Original Image

mapping
Mapping

Local Costmap: (10 m)2

  • 5 cm square cells; high resolution
  • Always centered on the robot
  • Used by the local planner

Global Costmap: (1000 m)2

  • 25 cm square cells; low resolution
  • Origin fixed by a GPS coordinate
  • Used by the global planner
  • Sensors mark and clear observations
  • Based on the ROS navigation stack
planning
Planning

Global Planner (on demand)

  • Weighted A* Search
  • Inverse of distance for <1 m
  • Constant for ≥1 m

Local Planner (20 Hz)

  • Dynamic Window Approach
  • 10 linear velocity samples
  • 15 angular velocity samples
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