An evolution path for numbering and interconnection
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An Evolution Path for Numbering and Interconnection. Future Of Numbering Symposium November 4, 2004. Presented by Penn Pfautz. Don’t Count NANP Numbers Out. Excitement about role of IP addresses/”handles” is interesting, and will be key in some applications, but ….

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An Evolution Path for Numbering and Interconnection

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An Evolution Path for Numbering and Interconnection

Future Of Numbering Symposium

November 4, 2004

Presented by Penn Pfautz

Don’t Count NANP Numbers Out

  • Excitement about role of IP addresses/”handles” is interesting, and will be key in some applications, but ….

  • Telephone numbers aren’t going away

    • Key pads limit alphabetic entry

    • Numbers support customer demands for privacy

    • Ubiquity of telephone numbers in telephony and non-telephony systems makes numbers hard to give up

  • BUT, the role of numbers in actual routing will diminish as telephony becomes an application on IP networks

Numbering & Interconnection

  • Numbers are about interconnection

    • NPA-NXX defines point of interconnection, not end user location

    • Point of Interface (POI) model lets users move without impacting calling party billing or carrier settlements

    • Wireless and foreign exchange service are existence proofs for the POI model

  • IP will change interconnection

    • All numbers will be 10-digit translated

The Triad

  • Three potential developments could revolutionize the current paradigm for numbering and interconnection

    • Internet Interconnection

    • Infrastructure ENUM

    • Individual Telephone Number Pooling

The Evolution of Interconnection

  • Circuit-switched interconnection model

    • Of necessity bilateral

    • Currently makes arbitrary distinctions between technically equivalent traffic types for MOU charges to provide subsidies

    • Intercarrier Compensation Forum reform proposals already contemplate transition to Bill & Keep

  • IP interconnection model

    • Based on peering or purchase of Internet access

    • Any public IP address reachable by any party with Internet access

      Which direction will VoIP interconnection take?

Internet Interconnection

  • All carriers provide at minimum a point of interconnection accessible through the Internet

    • Point or points to which SIP INVITEs and bearer traffic can be delivered

      • Alternate arrangements may be negotiated

      • Can be accomplished by purchase of gateway and ISP access where a carrier lacks its own IP network

      • Will only carriers or any entity be allowed to deliver traffic?

Infrastructure ENUM

  • Carriers provide ENUM entries with their Internet POI for numbers they serve

    • Separate from end user opt-in ENUM

    • Could replace number portability databases for Toll-Free as well as geographic numbers)

    • Tier 1 Registry could replace NPAC, SMS 800, perhaps LERG

    • Actual routing data under carrier control in Tier 2

Individual Telephone Number Pooling

  • As with toll-free, numbers not in service or aging are available to all carriers

  • More efficient utilization of resources since block size=1

  • NRUF, code/block acquisition processes eliminated since Registry provides support for measurements, resource assignment

  • Supports TN-based USF reform

In an IP environment many of the problems of implementing ITN in legacy networks are mitigated

  • LRNs (and thus NPA-NXX assignments) no longer required since routing is based on ENUM translation to Internet address

  • Price curve for VoIP technology will make it affordable for even small/rural carriers


  • Many oxen gored but,

    • Highly efficient structure based on Internet concepts replaces many unwieldy industry processes (could even add Do Not Call registry)

    • Significant conservation benefits

    • Fosters competition

  • Transition would take time but market forces will drive in this direction

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