Simple machines
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Simple Machines. Guided Reading and Study. Inclined Plane. 2. Flat, sloped surface 3. IMA : length / height 4. The following are true: a) Input force less than output force b) A ramp is an example d ) Allows you to exert a force over a longer distance

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Simple Machines

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Simple Machines

Guided Reading and Study


Inclined Plane

  • 2. Flat, sloped surface

  • 3. IMA: length / height

  • 4. The following are true:

  • a) Input force less than output force

  • b) A ramp is an example

  • d) Allows you to exert a force over a longer distance

  • 5. The larger (longer) the incline (less steep) the less input forceis needed to move an object


Wedge

  • 6. Thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end

  • Changes direction of the force

  • Examples: axe, zipper, knife, teeth…

  • 7. True – A wedge is an inclined plane (or 2 back to back) that can move

  • 8. True – longer, thinner wedges have a higher MA


Screw

  • 9. An inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder (Examples: screw, bottle cap (lid), curving parking ramp)

  • Multiples force (you input less force over a larger distance), can also change the direction of force

  • 10. The spiral inclined plane forms the threadsof a screw

  • 11. The input force is applied to the top of the screw. As the screw turns the threads exert on output force on the wood.


Lever

  • 12. A rigid bar that pivots or rotates around a fixed point.

  • 13. The fixed point that a lever pivots around is called the fulcrum


Lever

14. The following are true

  • a) A lever increases the effect of your input force

  • b) There are 3 different types of levers

  • c) A lever changes the direction of your input force


Lever

  • 15.

  • Fulcrum


Lever

  • 16.

2nd Class

1st Class

3rd Class


Lever

  • How levers make work easier depends on which class lever is being used.

    • 1st class: changes direction, can multiply force or distance

    • 2nd class: multiplies force

    • 3rd class: multiplies distance


First Class Lever

Input force

Output force

Fulcrum


Second Class Lever

Input force

Output force

Fulcrum


Third Class Lever

Output force

Input force

Fulcrum


Lever

  • 17.

  • IMA: distance from effort (IF) to fulcrum

    distance from load (OF) to fulcrum


Wheel and Axle

  • 18. 2 circular objects fastened together that rotate around a common axis. The circle with the larger radius is the wheel

  • If input is turning the wheel: multiplies force

  • If input is turning the axle: multiplies distance

  • Examples: Steering wheel, screw driver, door knob


Here is how a door knob is a wheel and axle:


Wheel and Axle

  • 19. IMA = radius of wheel

    radius axle


Pulley

  • 20. Made of a grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around it.

  • IMA: number of segments of rope that support the load

  • Examples are found on: flag poles, sail boats, construction cranes

  • 21. Type that changes the direction of input force = fixed pulley

  • 22. IMA of 2: moveable pulley

  • There are also block and tackle pulleys


Another example of a pulley: a clothes line


Simple Machines in the Body

  • 23. Most of the levers in the body consist of bones and muscles

  • 24. Your muscles are attached to your bones by tough connective tissue called tendons

  • 25. In a living lever in your body the joint near where the tendon is attached to the boneacts as the lever’s fulcrum


Simple Machines in the Body

3rd Class Lever!

  • 26.

Output Force

Input Force

Fulcrum


Simple Machines in the Body

  • 27. Incisors are wedges

  • 28. When you bite down on something, the wedge shape of your teeth produces enough force to break what you’re biting in half, just as an ax is used to split a log.


Compound Machines

  • 29. A machine that is made up of two or more simple machines.

  • 30. You must know the mechanical advantage of each simple machine utilized in the compound machine. The IMA of a compound machine is the product of the IMAs of the simple machines making up the compound machine.


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