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Simple Machines. Guided Reading and Study. Inclined Plane. 2. Flat, sloped surface 3. IMA : length / height 4. The following are true: a) Input force less than output force b) A ramp is an example d ) Allows you to exert a force over a longer distance

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Simple machines

Simple Machines

Guided Reading and Study


Inclined plane
Inclined Plane

  • 2. Flat, sloped surface

  • 3. IMA: length / height

  • 4. The following are true:

  • a) Input force less than output force

  • b) A ramp is an example

  • d) Allows you to exert a force over a longer distance

  • 5. The larger (longer) the incline (less steep) the less input forceis needed to move an object


Wedge
Wedge

  • 6. Thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end

  • Changes direction of the force

  • Examples: axe, zipper, knife, teeth…

  • 7. True – A wedge is an inclined plane (or 2 back to back) that can move

  • 8. True – longer, thinner wedges have a higher MA


Screw
Screw

  • 9. An inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder (Examples: screw, bottle cap (lid), curving parking ramp)

  • Multiples force (you input less force over a larger distance), can also change the direction of force

  • 10. The spiral inclined plane forms the threadsof a screw

  • 11. The input force is applied to the top of the screw. As the screw turns the threads exert on output force on the wood.


Lever
Lever

  • 12. A rigid bar that pivots or rotates around a fixed point.

  • 13. The fixed point that a lever pivots around is called the fulcrum


Lever1
Lever

14. The following are true

  • a) A lever increases the effect of your input force

  • b) There are 3 different types of levers

  • c) A lever changes the direction of your input force


Lever2
Lever

  • 15.

  • Fulcrum


Lever3
Lever

  • 16.

2nd Class

1st Class

3rd Class


Lever4
Lever

  • How levers make work easier depends on which class lever is being used.

    • 1st class: changes direction, can multiply force or distance

    • 2nd class: multiplies force

    • 3rd class: multiplies distance


First class lever
First Class Lever

Input force

Output force

Fulcrum


Second class lever
Second Class Lever

Input force

Output force

Fulcrum


Third class lever
Third Class Lever

Output force

Input force

Fulcrum


Lever5
Lever

  • 17.

  • IMA: distance from effort (IF) to fulcrum

    distance from load (OF) to fulcrum


Wheel and axle
Wheel and Axle

  • 18. 2 circular objects fastened together that rotate around a common axis. The circle with the larger radius is the wheel

  • If input is turning the wheel: multiplies force

  • If input is turning the axle: multiplies distance

  • Examples: Steering wheel, screw driver, door knob



Wheel and axle1
Wheel and Axle

  • 19. IMA = radius of wheel

    radius axle


Pulley
Pulley

  • 20. Made of a grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around it.

  • IMA: number of segments of rope that support the load

  • Examples are found on: flag poles, sail boats, construction cranes

  • 21. Type that changes the direction of input force = fixed pulley

  • 22. IMA of 2: moveable pulley

  • There are also block and tackle pulleys



Simple machines in the body
Simple Machines in the Body

  • 23. Most of the levers in the body consist of bones and muscles

  • 24. Your muscles are attached to your bones by tough connective tissue called tendons

  • 25. In a living lever in your body the joint near where the tendon is attached to the boneacts as the lever’s fulcrum


Simple machines in the body1
Simple Machines in the Body

3rd Class Lever!

  • 26.

Output Force

Input Force

Fulcrum


Simple machines in the body2
Simple Machines in the Body

  • 27. Incisors are wedges

  • 28. When you bite down on something, the wedge shape of your teeth produces enough force to break what you’re biting in half, just as an ax is used to split a log.


Compound machines
Compound Machines

  • 29. A machine that is made up of two or more simple machines.

  • 30. You must know the mechanical advantage of each simple machine utilized in the compound machine. The IMA of a compound machine is the product of the IMAs of the simple machines making up the compound machine.


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