Simple machines
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Simple Machines. What is a Machine?. A machine is a device that helps us perform tasks. How are machines used?. change energy from one form into another transfer forces change the direction of a force change the magnitude of a force change distance or speed. Real simple machines.

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Simple Machines

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Simple machines

Simple Machines


What is a machine

What is a Machine?

  • A machine is a device that helps us perform tasks.


How are machines used

How are machines used?

  • change energy from one form into another

  • transfer forces

  • change the direction of a force

  • change the magnitude of a force

  • change distance or speed


Real simple machines

Real simple machines

  • 1. State the main function or functions of each of the following machines:

    • (a) an axe

    • (b) a tennis racket

    • (c) a round doorknob

    • (d) a screwdriver

  • 2. Give two or three examples, of simple machines in the kitchen that increase the force you apply.


Through the ages

Through the Ages …


Two families

Two Families

All machines can be grouped into two categories:

  • The Lever Family

  • The Inclined Plane Family


The lever family

The Lever Family


The inclined plane family

The Inclined Plane Family


Complex machines

Complex machines

  • A machine that is composed of two or more simple machines


The lever family1

A lever is a rigid bar that can rotate freely around a support called a fulcrum.

Load

Fulcrum

The Lever Family


Simple machines

dL

dE

FL

FE

Load

Fulcrum

Distance to the Effort

Distance to the Load

Force of the Load

(mass) x 9.8

Force of the Effort


First class lever

First Class Lever

FL

FE

  • In a first-class lever, the fulcrum is between the load and the effort force.

Examples include a shovel or pry bar


Second class lever

Second Class Lever

FL

FE

  • In a second-class lever, the load is between the fulcrum and the effort force.

Examples include a wheel barrow


Third class lever

Third Class Lever

FL

FE

  • In a third-class lever, the effort force is exerted between the fulcrum and the load.

Examples include a fishing rod


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