Introduction to zoology
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Introduction to Zoology. Unit 1- Mrs. Stahl. Zoology- What is it? . The study of animals of course!  Extremely broad because there are so many concentrations and sooooo many animals. There are 8.7 million organisms on Earth, only 1.7 millions have been described.

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Introduction to zoology

Introduction to Zoology

Unit 1- Mrs. Stahl


Zoology what is it

Zoology- What is it?

  • The study of animals of course! 

  • Extremely broad because there are so many concentrations and sooooo many animals.

  • There are 8.7 million organisms on Earth, only 1.7 millions have been described.

  • Only 14% of the worlds species have been identified- that leave 86% left

  • Only 9% of the oceans species have been identified.

    • Ex- 20,000 species of bony fish

    • Ex- 300,000 species of beetles


What is an animal

What is an animal???????????????

  • A living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly.


Why do we want to study animals

Why do we want to study animals?

So we can study their:

- Functionality

- Structure

- Ecological Role and

Importance

- Evolution


Kingdom animalia

Kingdom Animalia

  • Multicellular

  • Eukaryotic

  • Consumers / Heterotrophs

  • Specialized Tissues- various tissues and organs

  • Aerobic Respiration / Cellular Respiration- metabolically break down food and use ATP energy to drive all of their functions.

  • Sexual Reproduction

  • Mobility


Characteristics of animals

Characteristics of Animals

  • Originated in the Precambrian Era over 600 mya.

  • Eukaryotes- organisms whose cells contain a nucleus.

  • Includes Plants, Fungi, and some unicellular organisms.

  • Animals -unique in nutrition; they eat other organisms and therefore need to capture food.

  • Animals lack photosynthesis; cell walls found in plants.

  • Fungi absorb food through little tubular filaments called hyphae which animals do not have.


Some are neither plants nor animals

Some are neither plants nor animals….

  • Euglena- motile, single celled organism that resembles plants in that they can be photosynthetic but also resembles animals in that they eat food particles.

  • Kingdom Protista.


Animals also

Animals also…..

  • Motile- move about from one location to the next.

  • Sessile- Cannot move from place to place but they still have moving parts.

  • What are 5 animals that are sessile and 5 that are motile?

  • Respiration

  • Digestion

  • Ingestion


Sessile

Sessile


Motile

Motile


How are they classified

How are they classified????

  • Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)

  • He came up with a means of naming organisms that was simple and universal.

  • Problem before this was that people were naming things multiple names that were really long, and there wasn’t any consistency.

  • Taxonomy- science of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.

  • Linnaeus came up with binomial nomenclature-> two word naming system

    • Genus, species

    • Always in italics

    • Genus is capitalized and species lowercased

    • Ex- Homo sapiens


Classification system

Classification System

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species

King Phillip Came Over From Great Spain!!!!


Three domains six major kingdoms

Three Domains & Six Major Kingdoms

Domains

Kingdoms

  • Bacteria-> contains single celled prokarotes. Largest group on Earth.

  • Archaea-> Microbes that live in extreme environments

  • Eukarya-> organisms with compartmentalized cells, eukaryotic cells.

  • Animalia- Animals

  • Plantae- Plants

  • Fungi- Fungus

  • Protista- animal like and plant like

  • Bacteria

  • Archaea


Class agnatha

Class Agnatha


Chondrichthyes

Chondrichthyes


Osteichthyes

Osteichthyes


Amphibia

Amphibia


Reptila

Reptila


Introduction to zoology

Aves


Mammalia

Mammalia


Two major categories

Two Major Categories

  • Vertebrates- with a backbone

  • Invertebrates- without a backbone

  • What am I?


Comparison

Comparison

  • Vertebrates

    • Internal segmented backbone

    • Most obvious

    • Make up less than 5 % of animal species

  • Invertebrates

    • Without backbone

    • Closely related to each other

    • About 95% of all animals are inverts.


Taxonomy how it s broken down

Taxonomy- How it’s broken down!

  • Kingdom Animalia

  • Phylum Chordata

  • Class:

    • Agnatha= Lampreys

    • Chondrichthyes=Sharks and Rays

    • Osteichthyes= Bony Fish

    • Amphibia= Frogs and Salamanders

    • Reptilia=Reptiles

    • Aves=Birds

    • Mammalia=Mammals


Vertebrate facts and characteristics

Vertebrate facts and Characteristics

  • More than one million species of animals.

  • Tens of millions undiscovered

  • Specialized tissues and organs

  • Found EVERYWHERE!!!

  • Have a backbone or vertebrate column

  • Have a skull or cranium

  • An internal skeleton

  • Range in size. Largest being the blue whale.


Seven essential functions to all vertebrates

Seven Essential Functions to all Vertebrates

  • 1. Feeding-

    • Herbivore- eats plants

    • Carnivore- eats meat

    • Omnivore- eats both plants and animals

    • Detritivore- feeds on dead things

    • Filter Feeders- strain food from the water

    • Parasite- lives on or in another organism.


Introduction to zoology

  • 2. Respiration- takes in oxygen, gives off carbon dioxide. Can be done through gills, lungs, skin, diffusion

  • 3. Circulation- circulating of blood through vessels.

  • 4. Excretion- primary waste is ammonia. Liquid waste filtered by the kidneys.

  • 5. Response- receptor cells= sound, light, external stimuli

  • 6. Movement- most are motile and the muscles work with skeleton

  • 7. Reproduction- most sexually= genetic diversity.


Let s narrow it down a little

Let’s Narrow it down a little….

  • Ichthyology- Study of fish

  • Entomology- insects

  • Herpetology- amphibians & reptiles

  • Mammalogy- mammals

  • Ornithology- birds

  • Protozoology- Protozoa


Let s review a little

Let’s Review a little…..

  • All living things must be able to:

    • 1. Reproduce

    • 2. Made up of cells

    • 3. Respond to a stimulus

    • 4. Grow and develop

    • 5. Evolve and change

    • 6. Metabolize- need and use chemical energy

    • 7. Maintain Homeostasis

    • 8. Be made up of DNA

    • 9. Chemical Uniqueness


Made up of cells

Made up of Cells

  • Smallest and basic unit of life.

  • Each level builds on the level below it.

  • Ex- within a cell macromolecules are assembled into ribosome's, chromosomes, and membranes and they are then built upon to form organelles such as the mitochondria.

Continues on to populations and species.


Dna deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid

  • Stores genetic information

  • Made up of nucleotides (4 nitrogenous base pairs-AGCT), sugars, and phosphates.

  • Adenine (A) pairs up with Thymine (T)

  • Guanine (G) pairs up with Cytosine (C)

  • The sequence of the bases is what codes for the order of amino acids in the protein sequence (amino acids).


Chemical uniqueness

Chemical Uniqueness

  • Complex molecular organization

  • Macromolecules- Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids

  • Ex- Proteins- 20 specific amino acids


Reproduction

Reproduction

  • Life has to come from prior life.

  • Living forms reproduce to generate others like themselves.

  • Genes replicate to form new genes

  • Cells divide to produce new cells

  • Reproduce sexually or asexually

  • Populations split up and new species are produced= speciation.


Metabolism

Metabolism

  • Have to acquire nutrients from their environment in order to maintain proper energy levels.

  • Nutrients-> chemical energy for the body to use in the form of ATP.

  • Chemical processes include digestion, respiration, and synthesis of molecules.

  • Interaction between catabolic (destructive) and anabolic (constructive)

  • Cellular Respiration-> mitochondria

  • Cellular and nuclear membranes (nucleus) regulate metabolism by controlling the movement of molecules in and out of the cell.


Growth and development

Growth and Development

  • All organisms have a life cycle that they go through from origin (when the sperm fertilizes the egg = fertilization) to adulthood.

  • Changes in size, shape, and differentiation in structures.

  • Unicellular are more simple than Multicellular.

  • Metamorphosis- many organisms have similar early stages of development and are hard to tell apart.


Stimulus

Stimulus

  • How do they interact / respond with their environment?

  • Often referred to as ecology focusing on geographic distribution and population abundance.

  • They respond by adapting their metabolism and physiology so that they can survive in the environment in which they live.


Evolution

Evolution

  • Change over time.


Homeostasis

Homeostasis

  • Maintaining an internal balance.


Life obeys the laws of physics

Life Obeys the Laws of Physics

  • The first law of thermodynamics-> conserving energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be transferred from one form to another.

    • a. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can be transformed from one form to another.

    • b. All aspects of life require energy.

    • c. In animals, chemical energy in food is converted to chemical energy in cells and then converted to mechanical energy of muscle contraction.

  • All our energy comes from the sun-> reaches Earth as light or heat-> Plants capture this light in the form of Photosynthesis in green plants and cyanobacteria transforms energy into chemical bonds-> bonds form potential energy (stored)-> bond breaks and the energy is released and used to perform many cellular tasks-> transferred to animals.


Second law of thermodynamics

Second Law of Thermodynamics

  • Physical systems tend to proceed toward a state of greater disorder or entropy.

  • Energy obtained and stored by plants is released by various mechanisms and then dissipated as heat.

  • It takes a constant input of usable energy from food to keep an animal organized.

  • The process of evolution does not violate the second law; complexity is achieved by constant use and loss of energy flowing into the biosphere from the sun.

  • Physiologists study survival, growth, reproduction, etc. from an energetic perspective.


Classification into a kingdom is based on certain criteria

Classification into a kingdom is based on certain criteria

  • Number of cells

  • How it obtains energy

  • Type of cell

  • DNA


Kingdom animalia it s major phyla

Kingdom Animalia & it’s Major Phyla

  • Porifera- sponges

  • Cnidaria- hydras, sea anemones, jelly fish, and corals

  • Annelida- marine worms, earthworms, and leeches

  • Mollusca- snails, octopi, squids, clams, mussels, conchs, etc.

  • Arthropoda- crabs, insects, lobsters, etc.

  • Echinodermata- sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, brittle stars

  • Chordata- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals


The scientific method

The Scientific Method

  • Used to set up an experiment in order to test a hypothesis or solve a problem.


Steps

Steps

  • Make an observation

  • Ask a question / Research

  • Form a hypothesis

  • Experimentation

  • Collect data / Results

  • Analyze and Conclude

  • Repeat


Observation

Observation

  • Use senses to study the world. Can also use tools such as previous biological research and computers.

  • Inference= logical interpretation based on prior knowledge.


Which is it observation or inference

Which is it- observation or inference?

  • The skin is red?

  • The apple is edible.

  • There are seeds inside.

  • It can make you healthy.

  • It feels smooth.


Example of an observation

Example of an observation

  • The white shark just jumped out of the water.


Conduct research to gain knowledge about what your studying researching

Conduct Research- to gain knowledge about what your studying / researching

  • Periodicals

  • Research reports

  • Trade magazines- science news

  • Trade books

  • Dictionaries

  • Encyclopedias

  • Indexes

  • Handbooks


Ask a question

Ask a Question

  • Do other sharks jump out of the water or just white sharks?


Hypothesis

Hypothesis

  • Not an EDUCATED GUESS- in science we don’t like to say that we are “guessing”

  • Prediction based on prior knowledge.

  • Typically use the words If and Then!

  • If a great white shark jumps out of the water when attacking their prey, then other sharks such as bull sharks should jump out of the water when attacking prey because they belong to the same family, therefore they should have similar behaviors.


Introduction to zoology

  • Inductive

    • Looking at individual observations and proposing a general explanation for them.

    • Example-> Scientist may observe an octopus and squid, both cephalopods, have arms with suckers and conclude that all cephalopods have arms with suckers.

  • Deductive

    • Observations suggest a general principle from which a specific statement can be derived.

    • Example-> all cephalopods have arms with suckers and since a cuttlefish is a cephalopod then it must also have arms with suckers.


Experiment

Experiment

  • Try to find the cause and effect relationship.

  • A. Independent Variable-> What you, the experimenter changes or manipulates. Example- conditions= hot / cold

  • B. Dependent Variable> the variable that changes because of the IV (results / data). Example- height of the plant (you, the experimenter has zero control over how high that plant grows).

  • C. Constants or Control Variables-> variables that remain the same. What is normal, for example- keeping the plant at room temperature.


Introduction to zoology

Data

  • Qualitative= descriptions using your senses

  • Quantitative= Numbers


Results

Results

  • Statistical analysis

    • Statistically significant= the data showed an effect that is likely not due to chance.

    • Nonsignificant= the data shows no effect, or an effect so small that the results could have happened by chance.

  • Use data tables and graphs to represent data collected.


Analysis and conclusion

Analysis and Conclusion

  • Make sense of your experiment in words, submit a journal paper to your peers for review, and if it can be duplicated / repeated with the same results then your research could become published.


What happens if your hypothesis is wrong

What happens if your hypothesis is wrong?

  • Try again, revamp your procedure / experiment.


Theory

Theory

  • Proposed explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results that is supported by a wide range of evidence. Provides explanations where scientific laws do not.

  • It can be added to or disproven

  • Ex- Theory of Evolution, Theory of Plate Tectonics


Scientific law

Scientific Law

  • A truth that is valid everywhere in the universe.

  • It does not provide any explanations like a theory does

  • Ex- the law of conservation of energy- energy may change form but it can’t be created nor destroyed.


Graphing and measurements

Graphing and Measurements

Y-axis / DV

X- axis / IV


We use charts and graphs to

We use charts and graphs to:

  • Analyze the results and to provide visual summaries


Data tables

Data Tables

  • Contains the numerical results of an experiment. Compiled before you make a chart or graph.


Line graphs

Line Graphs

  • Shows a relationship between two variables.


Bar graphs

Bar Graphs

  • Compares quantitative / qualitative data.


Histograms

Histograms

  • Show the frequency distribution of the data.

  • The bars touch!

  • Ex- using the numbers make a data table and histogram in your notes.

    • 7, 12, 12, 18, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 36, 36, 39, 43, 47


Histogram data table

Histogram Data Table


Stem and leaf plot

Stem and Leaf Plot

  • Another way to present a frequency distribution.

  • Represents actual data point

  • Tens= “stem”

  • Ones= “leaves”


Circle graph

Circle Graph

  • Shows data as proportions of a whole

  • “pie chart”- percentages


The metric s ystem see attached note sheets

The Metric System- see attached note sheets

  • IS- International System of Measurements

    • Used worldwide

    • Based on the metric system

    • Common units:

      • Length- Meters (m)

      • Volume- Liter (L)

      • Mass- Kilograms (kg)

      • Temperature- Kelvin (K)


Microscopes

Microscopes!!!!!!!!!!


Light or compound microscopes

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Light or Compound Microscopes

  • What we use in the classroom- basic

  • Several lenses to increase magnification

  • Uses glass lenses to focus on a specimen.

  • Can be used on living or preserved specimens

  • Can magnify objects up to 1500 times their actual size.

  • Specimens are often stained with chemicals so that we can see them.


Dissecting microscope

Dissecting Microscope

  • Stereoscope

  • Three dimensional image / view of the specimen

  • Essentially two compound microscopes that are focused on the same thing.

  • Low magnification so its hard to see individual cells- used for larger cells.


Scanning electron microscope

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Scanning Electron Microscope

  • Narrow beams of electrons that scan the surface of the specimen

  • Usually the specimen is covered with a thin layer of metal such as gold that deflects the electrons from passing through the specimen and onto a computer where color is added.


Transmission electron microscope

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Transmission Electron Microscope

  • Passes beams of electrons through the specimen and projects it onto a computerized screen where color is added.

  • Produces the best image because it magnifies the object so much.


Parts of a microscope

Parts of a Microscope

  • Nosepiece- holds the objective lenses above the stage and rotates so that all the lenses can be used.

  • Low Power Objective- magnifies an image 10X

  • Stage clip- holds the slide in place

  • Stage- supports the object being looked at.

  • Diaphragm- adjusts the amount of light passing through the slide and into the lens.

  • Light source- lights up the specimen


Introduction to zoology

  • Eyepiece- contains a lens that magnifies the object 10X. You look through this to view the specimen.

  • Body- separates the lens in the eyepiece from the other lens.

  • Arm- supports the body and this is where you hold it while supporting the base.

  • Scanning Objective- smallest lens and magnifies 4X

  • High Power Objective- largest lens and magnifies 40X

  • Fine Adjustment- dial used to focus in on the object when it’s on high power.

  • Course Adjustment- used to focus the image when it’s on scanning or low power.

  • Base- supports the scope.


Magnification

Magnification

  • 3 types- scanning, low, and high


Videos

Videos


Introduction to zoology

The End!!!!!!!

Review Next Class

Test Class After that!!!!!!!!!!!!


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