Introduction to zoology
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Introduction to Zoology. Classification of Animals. Review. Biology is the study of life… So what makes something living?. All living things must:. Be made up of at least 1 cell that contains genetic material (DNA) Reproduce (sexually or asexually)

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Introduction to Zoology

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Introduction to zoology

Introduction to Zoology

Classification of Animals


Review

Review

  • Biology is the study of life…

    • So what makes something living?


All living things must

All living things must:

  • Be made up of at least 1 cell that contains genetic material (DNA)

  • Reproduce (sexually or asexually)

  • Grow (increase in size, mature, develop, etc.)

  • Metabolize (have a need and use for energy)

  • Respond to stimuli


That s all fine and good but when do we get to the animals

That’s all fine and good, but when do we get to the animals?

  • Zoology-the study of animals

    • Two Major Categories:

      • Vertebrates-have a backbone

      • Invertebrates-do not have a backbone

      • Vertebrate or Invertebrate?


Characteristics of animals

Characteristics of Animals

  • All multicellular (metazoans)

  • Eukaryotes (cells with nucleus & organelles)

  • Cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplast

  • Ingestive heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it)

  • Store food reserves as glycogen


Besides having the characteristics of living things animals also

Besides having the characteristics of living things, animals also:

  • Carry out the following life processes:

    1.) Locomotion:

    • Motile-can move from one location to another on their own

    • Sessile-cannot move from place to place, but do have moving parts

Motile

Sessile


Life processes continued

Ingestion

Life Processes continued

  • Ingestion-take in food

  • Digestion-chemical breakdown of food

  • Assimilation- using the substances obtained from food and utilizing it for growth

  • Excretion-waste removal

  • Respiration-taking in O2 and breaking down glucose to release energy


Classification

Classification

  • So now that we’ve got all these animals, how do we make sense of it all?

    • TAXONOMY!

    • Taxonomy-Science of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.


Linnaean classification system

Linnaean Classification System

  • Created by Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)

    • Before Linnaeus, organisms were classified based on their type of locomotion and physical characteristics

      • Problem? Names were too long, and people describe things differently.

  • Utilizes binomial nomenclature- a two

    name system (genus and species)

    • Names are in Latin

  • Ex: Homo sapiens


Scientific name

Scientific Name

  • First name is genus; second name is species

  • 3 Rules For Scientific Name

    • Italicized or underlined

    • Genus name is Capitalized

    • Species name is lower-case

  • Example: Tursiopstruncatus


The modern classification system

The Modern Classification System

  • 7 Taxa:

    • Kingdom

    • Phylum

    • Class

    • Order

    • Family

    • Genus

    • Species


Kingdom animalia

Kingdom Animalia

  • Has 7 Major Phyla

    • Porifera

    • Cnidaria

    • Annelida

    • Mollusca

    • Arthropoda

    • Echinodermata

    • Chordata


Phylum porifera

Phylum Porifera

  • Porifera- “pore bearer”

  • Sponges

  • Simplest of all animals

  • Filter feeders

  • No true tissues or organs


Phylum cnidaria

Phylum Cnidaria

  • Includes hydras, sea anemones, jelly fish, and coral

  • Have stinging cells for defense and prey capture

  • Simple body plan (gastrovascular body cavity with one opening)


Phylum annelida

Phylum Annelida

  • Annelid- “little ring”

  • Includes marine worms, earthworms, leeches

  • Bodies are segmented


Phylum mollusca

Phylum Mollusca

  • Includes snails, octopusses, squids, clams, mussels, conchs, etc.

  • Have a shell (either external or internal)

  • Have a mantle lining the shell


Phylum arthropoda

Phylum Arthropoda

  • Arthropoda- “jointed foot”

  • Most diverse group

  • Includes crabs, lobsters, insects, spiders

  • Have an exoskeleton (outer hard covering is their skeleton)


Phylum echinodermata

Phylum Echinodermata

  • Includes sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and brittle stars.

  • Radially symmetrical

  • Posess a water vascular system- fluid filled channels that function in gas exchange, locomotion and feeding.


Phylum chordata

Phylum Chordata

  • VERTEBRATES!

  • Characterized by the presence of a vertebral column

  • Includes 5 classes

    • Fish

    • Amphibians

    • Reptiles

    • Birds

    • Mammals


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