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Long-Term Memory. Dr. Claudia J. Stanny EXP 4507 Memory & Cognition Spring 2009. Overview. Types of Long Term Memory Relation between encoding and retrieval Encoding processes and their consequences Retrieval strategies Autobiographical memory.

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Long-Term Memory

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Long-Term Memory

Dr. Claudia J. Stanny

EXP 4507

Memory & Cognition

Spring 2009


Overview

  • Types of Long Term Memory

  • Relation between encoding and retrieval

  • Encoding processes and their consequences

  • Retrieval strategies

  • Autobiographical memory

Claudia J. Stanny


Long Term Memory: Ebbinghaus (1885) Long-term Retention Functions

Claudia J. Stanny


Types of Long Term Memory

Claudia J. Stanny


Distinctive Characteristics of LTM

  • Organization of information

    • Schemas

  • Capacity

  • Duration

    • Bahrick: permastore

  • Encoding – impact on retention

  • Retrieval mechanisms

    • Forgetting: availability versus accessablity

Claudia J. Stanny


Encoding Strategies: Levels of Processing

  • Craik & Lockhart (1972)

  • Orienting tasks assigned at study to induce different levels of processing

    • Shallow processing (physical features of stimuli)

      Does the word contain an E or a G?

      Is the word presented in capital or lower case letters?

    • Intermediate processing

      Write down a word that begins with the same sound.

    • Deep processing (semantic encoding)

      Rate words on your perception of their PLEASANTNESS

      (1 = UNPLEASANT 7 = PLEASANT)

Claudia J. Stanny


Recognition performance for words processed at different levels

Data from EXP 3082 (2002)

Claudia J. Stanny


Variations on Deep Processing

  • What kinds of processing “count” as deep processing?

  • Distinctive encoding

    • Encoding differsor makes a stimulus stand out

    • Isolation effects; unique encodings

  • Elaborate encoding

    • Create a code that includes multiple aspects

    • Complex codes; many connections to other representations

Claudia J. Stanny


Self-Reference Effect

  • Processing task:

  • Does this word relate to you?

  • Recognition performance is as good as for a semantic processing task

  • Biggest improvement seen when participants think the word does apply to them (46%) than when it does not (34%)

Claudia J. Stanny


Generation EffectSlamecka & Graf (1978)

  • What is the effect of processing depth when you generate the code yourself versus when you have the coding given to you?

  • Read Condition

    • Shallow: SAVE – CAVE

    • Deep: SEA – OCEAN

  • Generate Condition

    • Shallow: SAVE – C____ (rhyme) CAVE

    • Deep: SEA – O_____ (synonym) OCEAN

Claudia J. Stanny


Encoding Specificity

  • Match between cues encoded at study and cues available during retrieval

Claudia J. Stanny


Emotion, Mood and Memory

  • Pollyanna Principle

  • Rate of forgetting for pleasant & unpleasant events

  • Mood-dependent congruence

  • Mood-dependent memory (encoding specificity)

Claudia J. Stanny


Retrieval from LTM

  • Types of Retention Tasks

  • Explicit Memory Tasks

    • Aware that memory is being used/tested

    • Subjective experience of intentional use of memory

  • Implicit Memory Tasks

    • Task is perceived as a problem-solving task or other cognitive challenge

Claudia J. Stanny


Comparing Memory Tasks

Explicit Memory Tasks

Implicit Memory Tasks

Word completion task

V__L__A__E

Word stem completion task

OC __ __ __

Repetition priming (RT tasks)

Lexical decision task

Anagram solving

LVGEALI → _______

  • Recall

  • Cued recall

  • Recognition tests

  • yes/no recognition

  • multiple choice tests

Claudia J. Stanny


Evidence for different types of LTM

  • Dissociation of performance on explicit and implicit memory tasks

  • Variables improve performance on explicit memory but do not influence implicit memory performance

    • Depth of processing

  • Variables improve implicit memory performance but do not influence explicit memory

    • Benefits of number of repetitions

  • Note: some variables have the same effect on both types of task (proactive interference)

Claudia J. Stanny


Effect of LOP on performance on an implicit and an explicit memory task

  • Shallow processing task

    • Does the word have a B or a P?

  • Deep processing task

    • Rate the word on its pleasantness (1 – 7)

  • Implicit memory test

    • Anagram task

  • Explicit memory test

    • Free recall

Data: EXP 4507L Spring 2006

Claudia J. Stanny


Amnesia

  • Differences in performance by amnesiacs on implicit and explicit memory tasks

Claudia J. Stanny


How do experts differ from novices?

  • Amount of knowledge in area of expertise

  • Quality of organization of information in LTM

    • More efficient encoding of new information

    • More successful retrieval of information

  • Differences in cognitive strategies used

    • Chunking and organization of new material

    • Identifying distinctive characteristics of stimuli

    • Procedures used to solve problems

  • Better metacognition about processing

    • Judgments about task difficulty

    • Monitoring progress on a problem

Claudia J. Stanny


Expertise is Context-Specific

  • Expertise emerges from extensive deliberate practice in a particular domain

    • 10 years of deliberate practice required (Ericsson, 2003)

  • Expertise in one domain does not make one an expert in every domain

    • Superior memory performance in one area of expertise does not generalize to superior memory performance in general

    • Problem identification and efficient solution is also domain-specific

Claudia J. Stanny


Autobiographical Memory

  • Special case of episodic memory

  • Memory for events of our personal life

  • Interaction with semantic memory:

    • Role of schemas in autobiographical recall

    • Consistency bias

  • Source monitoring

    • Identifying the origin of a memory or belief

Claudia J. Stanny


Recall of autobiographical memories across the life span (Rubin, 1997)

Reminiscence Bump

Forgetting Function

Infantile Amnesia

Claudia J. Stanny


Flashbulb Memories

  • Highly detailed episodic memories of an event

  • Contain many autobiographical details

    • Source information for the news of the event

    • Detailed contextual information

      Where you were, what you were doing, who you talked to, what your emotional response was, etc.

  • Are flashbulb memories special?

  • Do they include errors seen in other memories?

  • Are they subject to forgetting like other memories?

Claudia J. Stanny


Eyewitness Memory

  • Estimator Variables

    • Characteristics of the witness or witnessed event known to have an influence on accuracy of witness recollections

  • System Variables

    • Characteristics of the legal / investigative process known to have an influence on accuracy of witness recollections

  • Variables that produce memory distortions

    • Misleading questioning

    • Post-Information effects

Claudia J. Stanny


Factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness memory

  • Delays between the event and recall

  • Intrusions related to misinformation

  • Reconstructive nature of memory

    Schema-based intrusions

  • Social pressure

    Demand characteristics of questioning the encourage production of more information or a specific answer

  • Positive feedback following identifications during lineups increases confidence without increasing accuracy

Claudia J. Stanny


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