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Long-Term Memory. Introduction STM versus LTM Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Procedural Memory Encoding in Long-Term Memory Depth of Processing (or Levels of Processing) Self Reference Effect Encoding Specificity Principle Emotions, Moods, and Memory. Long-Term Memory 2.

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Long term memory
Long-Term Memory

  • Introduction

    • STM versus LTM

    • Episodic Memory

    • Semantic Memory

    • Procedural Memory

  • Encoding in Long-Term Memory

    • Depth of Processing (or Levels of Processing)

    • Self Reference Effect

    • Encoding Specificity Principle

    • Emotions, Moods, and Memory


Long term memory 2
Long-Term Memory 2

  • Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

    • Explicit versus Implicit Memory

    • Very Long-Term Memory

    • Expertise

    • Amnesia

  • Autobiographical Memory

    • Flashbulb Memories

    • Schemas & Autobiographical Memory

    • Source Monitoring

    • Eyewitness Testimony


Tulving s memory model
Tulving’s Memory Model

  • Episodic

  • Semantic

  • Procedural


Encoding in ltm
Encoding in LTM

  • Levels (depth) of processing

  • Self-Reference Effect

  • Encoding Specificity Principle

  • Emotion and Memory

    • Mood and Memory


Levels of processing framework
Levels of Processing Framework

  • Craik & Lockhart (1972)

  • Type of Processing

    • Physical Processing > shallow

    • Meaningful Processing > deep

  • Trace byproduct of processing

  • Deeper processing leads to more durable traces




Maintenance rehearsal vs elaborative rehearsal
Maintenance Rehearsal vs.Elaborative Rehearsal


Research on lop and similar themes
Research on LOP and Similar Themes

  • Tulving (1975)

  • Generation Effect (1978)

    • e.g. light d_ _ k (generation)

      vs.

      light dark (read)

  • Faces - e.g. Sporer (1991)


Judge how wide the person s nose is
Judge how wide the person’s nose is:





Explanations
Explanations

  • Distinctiveness

  • Elaboration


Self reference effect
Self-Reference Effect

  • Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker (1997)

  • Process list of words:

    • Physical characteristics

    • Acoustic characteristics

    • Semantic characteristics

    • Self - (reference)

  • Robust effect

  • Symons & Johnson (1997)

    • Meta-analysis

  • Explanations



Revisions to lop
Revisions to LOP

  • Moscovitch & Craik (1975)

    -Encoding Specificity Principle

  • Bransford & Franks

    - Transfer Appropriate Processing


Effects of context
Effects of Context

  • Geiselman & Glenny (1977)

  • Outshining hypothesis


Effects of context1
Effects of Context

  • Baddeley - scuba diving

  • Remembering names - faces as contextual cues

  • Practical Application - imaginary reinstatement


Geiselman glenny 1997

Geiselman & Glenny (1997)

Encoding

(Imagined)

female voice

male voice

Test (Actual

Speaker)

male

female

male

female



How can we use the encoding specificity principle to improve memory for events
How can we use theEncoding Specificity Principle to improve memory for events?


Mood memory
Mood & Memory

  • Memory for items differing in emotion

  • Pollyanna Principle

  • Mood Congruence

    - individual differences studies

    - experimental manipulation of moods

  • Mood-State Dependence

    - Claudia Ucros (1989)

    - meta-analysis

    - other variables


Study each of the words that appear
Study each of the words that appear

Picture

Commerce

Motion

Village

Vessel

Window

Number

Reindeer

Custom

Fellow

Advice

Dozen

Flower

Kitchen

Bookstore



Implicit memory measures
Implicit Memory Measures

Picture, Commerce, Motion, Village,Vessel,Window, Number, Reindeer, Custom, Fellow, Advice, Dozen, Flower, Kitchen, Bookstore


Explicit vs implicit measures of memory
Explicit vs Implicit Measures of Memory

  • Explicit memory measures:

    • recall

    • recognition

  • Implicit memory measures:

    • Word fragment completion

    • Stem completion

    • Repetition priming

  • Role of conscious, deliberate recollection


The critical distinction
The Critical Distinction

  • Explicit memory tasks require conscious, deliberate recollection of previous experiences

  • Implicit memory tasks do not require conscious recollection of previous events

    e.g., b_ _ k


Research with amnesics
Research with Amnesics

  • Warrington & Weiskrantz (1970)

  • Tasks

    explicit - recognition, recall

    implicit - mutilated word guessing

    - stem completion

    e.g. st_ _ _

  • Replicated

  • Dissociation


Dissociation
Dissociation

  • A variable has an effect on one type of test, but little or no effect on another type of test

  • A variable has one type of effect if measured by Test A, but a different effect if measured by Test B


Research with normal adults
Research with Normal Adults

  • Levels of processing and the

    implicit / explicit distincion

  • Picture Superiority Effect

  • Current Status

    - explanations

    - applications


Levels of processing explicit implict tests

truck

Levels of Processing: Explicit/Implict Tests

Semantic

(pleasant vs unpleasant)

Physical, perceptual

Task (# syllables or

Upper/lower case?)

Explicit

Memory Test

Higher recall,

recognition *

___

Implicit

Memory Test

(e.g. t_u_k)

___

Higher--or at least equal performance*


Picture superiority effect
Picture Superiority Effect

  • Subjects view a series of pictures or a series of words

  • Subjects recall stimuli by writing down names of items -- recall of pictures is higher than recall of words.

Elephant

versus.




Explanations1
Explanations

  • No agreed-upon explanation

  • Context & encoding specificity

  • Multiple memory systems

    • e.g. Tulving

  • Neuroscience account



Ad for experimental psychologists
Ad for Experimental life problems?Psychologists


Expertise
Expertise life problems?

  • Influence on LTM

  • Definition - consistent superior performance

    - deliberate practice

    - at least 10 years

  • Domain specific

  • 10-year rule


Context specific nature of expertise
Context-Specific Nature of Expertise life problems?

  • Skilled memory effect

  • Chess

    -De Groot

    -Chase & Simon (1973):

    5 second task

    typical vs. random positions

  • Similar effects in many domains:

    -basketball

    -x-rays

    -circuit diagrams, etc.

  • SF (digits only)


An expert waiter jc
An Expert Waiter - JC life problems?

  • Ericsson (1985)

  • J.C. - 20 tops

  • Comparison of J.C. to college students

  • Critical difference = memory strategies and knowledge

  • Follow-up study (Crutcher, Ericsson, & Bauder)



Jc s strategies
JC’s Strategies life problems?



Autobiographical memory
Autobiographical Memory life problems?

  • Memory for events and issues related to yourself

  • Naturally occurring events

  • Rapidly growing interest

  • Wide variety of topics

  • High ecological validity


Topics
Topics life problems?

  • Flashbulb Memories

    • Brown & Kulik (1977)

    • High level of surprise

    • High level of emotional arousal

    • Recent Research (Weaver, 1993)

  • Schemas & Autobiographical Memory

    • Generalized, abstract knowledge structures

    • Memory for common, ordinary events

    • Variable instantiation

    • False memories

    • Consistency bias

    • Repisodic Memory


Topics1
Topics life problems?

  • Source Monitoring

    • Origin of a memory

    • Actual versus imagined action

    • Marsh & Colleagues (1997)

    • Henkel & Colleagues (2000)



Schematization of memory
Schematization of Memory life problems?


Eyewitness testimony
Eyewitness Testimony life problems?

  • The ‘gentleman bandit’ (1979)

  • Identifying faces

    • Recognition accuracy

      • Time and attention

      • Reintz, et al. (1994, p 45)

    • Length of retention interval

    • Intervening info

  • Misleading post-event info


Misinformation effect
Misinformation Effect life problems?

  • Caused by misleading information given after viewing an earlier event

  • RI = retroactive inhibition or interference

  • Classic experiment - Loftus (1978)


Loftus 1978
Loftus (1978) life problems?


Loftus 1978 results
Loftus (1978) Results life problems?


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