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Religion, Gender, and Development . November 24, 2004. Religion, Gender and Development. Does gender inequality retard development? Is religion responsible for gender inequality?. Development as Freedom: Amartya Sen. The goal of development is the enhancement of human freedom

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Religion gender and development

Religion, Gender, and Development

November 24, 2004


Religion gender and development1
Religion, Gender and Development

  • Does gender inequality retard development?

  • Is religion responsible for gender inequality?


Development as freedom amartya sen
Development as Freedom: Amartya Sen

  • The goal of development is the enhancement of human freedom

  • The enhancement of human freedom is the chief instrument of development


Gender inequality 100 million missing women
Gender Inequality: 100 Million Missing Women

  • Gender-based poverty

  • Infanticide

  • Perinatal mortality

  • Health Inequalities

  • Violence



Male female sex ratios
Male/Female Sex Ratios

  • 22 of 32 countries with sex ratios exceeding 102/100 are Muslim

  • India has a sex ratio of 106/100

  • China has a sex ratio of 117/100


Male female literacy gap
Male/Female Literacy Gap

  • Muslim countries: 18.7

  • Catholic countries: 4.3

  • India: 26

  • China: 19



“The central values separating Islam and the West revolve far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

- Pippa Norris and Ron Inglehart,

Sacred and Secular(2004)


How does gender equity promote development
How Does Gender Equity Promote Development? far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • Increases GDP

    • Reduce illiteracy gap, raise GDP 1%

  • Reduces fertility

    • Raise education level 3 years, reduce birth rate by 1 child

  • Reduces inequality

    • 1% increase in labor force with secondary education increases income to poorest 40 percent by 6-15%


The china india kerala comparison
The China-India-Kerala Comparison: far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • China: compulsory one-child policy 1979-92 reduces birth rate to 2.0

  • India: non-compulsory family planning reduces birth rate to 3.7

  • Kerala: female literacy, health care program reduces birth rate to 1.8


Increase female employment
Increase Female Employment far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • Raises marriage age

  • Increases birth spacing

  • Increases household income

  • Improves child survival rates

  • Improves child weight-height measures

  • Reduces spousal abuse


Progress in empowering women
Progress in Empowering Women far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”


Improve female political participation
Improve Female Political Participation far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • Makes government less authoritarian?

  • Improves welfare and health expenditure?


Women s empowerment how to get there
Women’s Empowerment: How to far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”Get There

  • Electoral quotas for representation

  • Targeted investment in female education

  • Microfinance loans to women


Case study grameen bank bangla desh
Case Study: Grameen Bank, Bangla Desh far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • Female poverty and credit

  • Credit and purdah

  • Credit and gender discrimination

  • Microcredit and Islam


Personal status law
Personal Status Law far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • Liberalize and equalize divorce law

  • Equalize women’s rights in sharia law

  • Enforce property rights for females: inheritance, divorce, succession


Opposition
Opposition far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • Authoritarian political leaders

  • Patriarchal family heads

  • Religious authorities

  • Women


Women s opposition
Women’s Opposition far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • The value of religious freedom

  • The value of women’s autonomy


How to bring them along
How to Bring Them Along: far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”

  • Frame this as a development program, not as a women’s issue

  • Frame this as a local strategy, not a Western one

  • Work with men, not against them

  • Work within local institutions, not against them

  • Secure women’s consent: do not take it for granted


Is religion responsible for gender inequality
Is Religion Responsible for far more centrally around Eros than Demos.”Gender Inequality?

  • Religion as a language of social justice

  • Religion as a language of patriarchal authority

  • Religion as a language of individual improvement

  • Religion as a site of political struggle


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