Industrialization
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Industrialization. The “Steel Horse”. Five main lines Great Northern Northern Pacific Central/Union Pacific Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Southern Pacific. Significance and impact. +++++++’s Speed and mobility. Town growers. Populating the West. Creation of corporations.

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Industrialization

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Industrialization

Industrialization


The steel horse

The “Steel Horse”

  • Five main lines

  • Great Northern

  • Northern Pacific

  • Central/Union Pacific

  • Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

  • Southern Pacific


Significance and impact

Significance and impact.


A double edged sword

+++++++’s

Speed and mobility.

Town growers.

Populating the West.

Creation of corporations.

Employment of thousands.

Time

------------’s

Led to the destruction of Native-American culture in the Plains.

Creation of Trusts etc. (greed)

Buffalo

Exploitation of Chinese and Irish

A double-edged sword??


Stanford and carnegie

Stanford and Carnegie


Personalities

Personalities

  • Railroads, banking, inventions, oil and steel.

    Business practices directed at maintaining a monopoly:

  • “stock watering”, bribery, cutthroat tactics, “pool”, “interlocking directorates”, vertical/horizontal integration, trust, interlocking directorates….


Rockefeller and morgan

Rockefeller and Morgan


Greed is good

“Greed is Good”

  • Rags to riches stories. Horatio Algier. Poor Henry.

  • Gospel of Wealth

  • Social Darwinism

  • Deepening class struggles and the division of wealth.

  • Becoming “fertile ground” for-----????


Government attempts at regulation

Government attempts at Regulation.

Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.

  • Regulate the railroads. Prohibited rebates and pools.

  • Publish rates openly. No discrimination.

  • Created the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890

  • Attempt to curb monopolies.No restraint of trade. Ineffectual due to loopholes.


Impact of industrialization

Impact of Industrialization

  • Industry moves to the South.

  • Immigrants, the poor, women and children.


Labor fights back

Labor fights back

The Union.

Union weapons:

  • strike, boycott, walkout, “closed-shop”.

    Corporate weapons:

  • “scabs”, strikebreakers, police and the courts, lockouts, “yellow-dog contracts”, blacklists, company towns.


Early labor movement

Early Labor Movement

National Labor Union (1866)

Won the 8 hour day for gov’t workers. Hurt by the depression of the 1870’s.

Knights of Labor

“An injury to one is the concern of all.” Allowed skilled and unskilled labor.


Haymarket square bombing 1886

IWPA strike in Chicago.. 8-hr day

Protest rally—anarchists.

Bomb explodes killing several and wounding over 100.

Eight arrested. 4 hung.

Justice???

"The day will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you are throttling today."

Haymarket Square Bombing--1886


Homestead strike 1892

Carnegie and steel.

Reformer in his own eyes….

Economic downturn.

Violence…

Homestead Strike--1892


Pullman strike 1894

American Railway Union.

Federal angle.

Eugene V. Debs

Pullman Strike -1894


American federation of labor

American Federation of Labor

  • Samuel Gompers

  • Self-governing national unions.

  • Sought better working conditions, pay and hours.

  • Very effective.

  • Only allowed skilled labor.

  • Labor Day, 1894


Bertrand russell

Bertrand Russell

  • “Advocates of capitalism are very apt to appeal to the sacred principles of liberty, which are embodied in one maxim: The fortunate must not be restrained in the exercise of tyranny over the unfortunate”

  • Assess the validity of this quote using the provided documents and your knowledge of the time period 1870-1900.


Bertrand russell1

Bertrand Russell

  • “Advocates of capitalism are very apt to appeal to the sacred principles of liberty, which are embodied in one maxim: The fortunate must not be restrained in the exercise of tyranny over the unfortunate.”

  • Assess the validity of this quote using the provided documents and your knowledge of the time period 1870-1900.


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