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Computer Hardware. Focus Items. Design systems that meet business needs Hardware industry trends Problems Legacy hardware (and software) Dealing with growth Improving fault tolerance. Terms (Speed). Microsecond - 1/1000 second Millisecond – 1/1,000,000 second

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Computer hardware

Computer Hardware


Focus items

Focus Items

  • Design systems that meet business needs

  • Hardware industry trends

  • Problems

    • Legacy hardware (and software)

    • Dealing with growth

  • Improving fault tolerance


Terms speed

Terms (Speed)

  • Microsecond - 1/1000 second

  • Millisecond – 1/1,000,000 second

  • Nanosecond – 1/1,000,000,000 second

  • Picosecond – 1/1,000,000,000,000 second

  • Teraflop – Trillion (1,000,000,000,000) floating point operations per second


Terms storage

Terms (Storage)

  • 1,000 bytes – Kilobyte

  • 1,000,000 bytes – Megabyte

  • 1,000,000,000 bytes – Gigabyte

  • 1,000,000,000,000 bytes – Terabtye

  • 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes = Petabyte


Terms cpu 1

Terms (CPU) (1)

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    • Many machines have multiple CPUs

    • Servers scale from 1-256 processors

    • Many CPUs are designed to support virtualization

  • Processor speed

    • Measured in GHz.

    • A measure of the internal clock


Terms cpu illustration

Terms (CPU) (Illustration)


Terms cpu 2

Terms (CPU) (2)

  • Most machines have multiple cores

    • A “core” is a separate work engine within the cpu


Terms cache memory

Terms (Cache) (Memory)

  • CACHE – Memory directly connected to the CPU

    • Fast

  • Memory (Primary storage)

    • Volatile storage to store data

    • Not all memory is the same

      • Some provides error correction

      • Performance differences

      • Density


Terms bus

Terms (Bus)

  • Bus

    • Communicates from CPU to memory, disk, network controllers, etc.

    • Bus speed is an important consideration


Terms disk

Terms (Disk)

  • Disk (Secondary storage)

    • Hard

      • ATA, SATA, SCSI,

    • Optical

      • CD / DVD / Blu Ray

    • Backup tape devices

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk_drive


Categories of computers lightweight devices

Categories of Computers (lightweight devices)

  • “Lightweight devices”

    • Network computers

    • Special purpose transaction terminals

      • UPS / FedEx

    • Browser-only devices (kiosks)


Categories of computers information appliances

Categories of Computers (Information Appliances)

  • Information appliances

    • Smart phone

    • Tablets of all shapes and sizes


Categories of computers desktop

Categories of Computers (Desktop)

  • Market is shrinking because of tablet / phone horsepower

  • These are the engineering workstations of yesterday


Categories of computers servers

Categories of Computers (Servers)

  • Oracle Sun / HP / IBM / Dell provide the lion’s share of todays servers

  • Characterized by

    • Multiple CPUs with multiple cores


Large server example

Large Server (Example)

  • SPARK Enterprise M9000

    • 64 processors / 4 cores per processor

    • 4TB memory

    • Storage measure in the pedabytes (NAS)

  • IBM Power 795

    • Up to 256 processor cores book “book” and up to 8 books

    • 16 TB memory

    • All for about $1 million


Larger server illustration

Larger Server (Illustration)


Categories of computers blade

Categories of Computers (Blade)

  • A computer within a computer

  • We buy a “blade chassis” containing

    • Power supplies / cooling / external media

  • We buy blade computers that go into the chassis

  • Blades:

    • Reduce power consumption and maintenance costs


Blade illustration

Blade (Illustration)


Categories of computers mainframe

Categories of Computers (Mainframe)

  • These are really just the IBM Z series and a few special purpose devices


Categories of computers distributed computing

Categories of Computers (Distributed Computing)

  • (Distributed computing)

    • It’s really the software and not the hardware

    • We just cluster multiple computers together

  • Special purpose back ends

    • TeraData database servers

    • Storage Tek disk and tape sub systems

    • Storage Area Networks (SAN)


Video technologies

Video Technologies

  • LCD flat panels are have made tube technology obsolete

    • Reduced power consumption

  • Refresh rate is an important consideration

  • Multiple monitor systems improve productivity

  • Improved glass substrate technology has allows LCDs to get larger and larger


Secondary storage memory

Secondary Storage (Memory)

  • CPUs read and write data from primary storage (memory)

  • Memory keeps getting faster, cheaper, and bigger

    • Cost is as low as $9.50 per GB

    • At one time it was $10,000 or more per MB

  • Types

    • RAM (There are many types of RAM)

    • ROM


Secondary storage disk

Secondary Storage (Disk)

  • Trends

    • They are cheap commodity items

      • < $100.00 per terabyte

    • Rated in mean time between failure (MTBF)

      • 100,000 to 1.5M hours is common

    • Multiple disks are connected to form disk subsystems


Computer hardware

RAID

  • Redundant disk arrays supply fault tolerance

  • There are different types of RAID

    • Level 1 uses separate disks (mirroring)

    • Level 2 uses striping

    • There are others

  • Example

    • HP 3PAR StoreServ 10000 storage

      • Fault tolerant

      • Up to 2.2 PB of storage


Secondary storage magnetic tape

Secondary Storage (Magnetic Tape)

  • It’s still used for large archive sites

    • Phone records, credit card records, and other historical data

  • Tapes are enclosed in tape robotic sub systems

    • We can store up to 75-100 PB

    • HP StoreEver ESL G3

    • Up to 12,006 tape cartridges


Disk storage servers

Disk Storage Servers

  • Dell PowerVaults have up to 150 3TB drives

  • UP to the big EMC storage devices (3PB)

  • https://store.emc.com/Solve-For/STORAGE-PRODUCTS/VNX7500/p/VNX-7500-STOR-001-1Q13-0025


Secondary storage san

Secondary Storage (SAN)

  • We are really just making data available to many clients

  • Evolution

    • Network Access Storage (NAS) put storage on the network instead of a server

    • Storage Area Network (SAN) puts storage on it’s on it’s own ‘very fast’ network

      • 2GB/Sec interconnect using Fibre channel


Printer technology

Printer Technology

  • Desktop laser printers offer low TCO

  • High speed production printers

    • These compete against traditional offset presses

    • Continuous roll input

    • Up to 2500 pages per minute

    • www.delphax.com


Printer technology 2

Printer Technology (2)

  • Kodak example system:

  • About 75ft long and 15ft tall Will print both sides at 2 up(2 different documents side by side)

  • Ink jet printer - 12 print heads  -- 8 nine inch heads and 4 four inch heads.

  • Running at 1000ft per minute

  • Ink feeds from 275gal tanks


Printer technology 3

Printer Technology (3)


Printer technology 4

Printer Technology (4)


Rfid technology

RFID Technology

  • These are tiny chips send or receive radio signals

    • They are becoming an alternative to bar codes

  • Uses

    • It’s been proposed to put them in Euros

    • Casinos are using them in high denomination chips

      • Wynn


Balance in systems

Balance in Systems

  • The issue in configuring large systems is balance

  • Choosing the right system for the job

    • Disk (IO) is often the bottleneck

    • Bus Speed

    • Memory shortfalls

    • Network bandwith


Scalability in systems

Scalability in Systems

  • Systems must be able to grow with a business

  • Expansion of an existing system by adding memory, disk or other components

  • Expansion by adding additional servers to a cluster or server farm


Server farms

Server Farms

  • Many servers interconnected together


Server farms load balancing

Server Farms (Load Balancing)

  • Load balancing servers

    • Dispatch request to the actual servers

    • Monitor the health of the servers

    • Monitor the load on the various servers


Titan

Titan

  • Oak Ridge National Labs houses the “fastest” computer in the world


Titan1

Titan

  • 27,000 trillion calculations / second (27 petaflops)

  • 299,008 CPU cores

    • 18,688 AMD Opteron

    • 18,688 K20x GPUs

  • 710TB of memory

  • Cost of 97 million


Fault tolerance in systems

Fault Tolerance in Systems

  • One server in a farm can fail leaving the others running

  • Fault tolerant servers have multiple CPUs

  • Failed memory will not cause a system to fail

  • RAID allows disk failures without causing system failures


Economic decisions

Economic Decisions

  • Single vendor solutions vs. multivendor solutions

  • Lease VS. buy decisions


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