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MODERN AFRICA. THEMES/PROBLEMS GEOGRAPHY INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS CASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICA (APARTHEID) DEVELOPMENT, AIDS CRISIS, ECONOMICS. PROBLEMS/THEMES. AIDS CRISIS FAMINE/HUNGER CIVIL WAR ETHNIC UNREST/GENOCIDE POVERTY/INEQUALITY OF WEATLTH LACK OF INVESTMENT CAPITAL.

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Modern africa

MODERN AFRICA

THEMES/PROBLEMS

GEOGRAPHY

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS

CASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICA (APARTHEID)

DEVELOPMENT, AIDS CRISIS, ECONOMICS


Problems themes
PROBLEMS/THEMES

  • AIDS CRISIS

  • FAMINE/HUNGER

  • CIVIL WAR

  • ETHNIC UNREST/GENOCIDE

  • POVERTY/INEQUALITY OF WEATLTH

  • LACK OF INVESTMENT CAPITAL


African geography
AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY

FEATURES:

  • SAHARA DESERT

  • GREAT RIFT VALLEY

  • NILE RIVER

  • KALAHARI DESERT

  • ATLAS MOUNTAINS

  • LAKE VICTORIA

  • CONGO RIVER


Effects of geography
EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHY

FEATURE EFFECT

SAHARA DESERTIFICATION

DESERT ACTS AS A BARRIER TO

TRADE AND TRAVEL

LACK OF FERTILE FARM LAND

NILE RIVER FERTILE VALLEY, SILT

OTHER RIVERS WATER FALLS, RAPIDS, CATARACTS

MAKE TRANSPORTATION DIFFICULT BUT

SOMETIMES GOOD FOR HYDROELECTRIC POWER


Effects of geogrpahy
EFFECTS OF GEOGRPAHY

  • RESOURCES

  • Gold and diamonds in South Africa Brought European Powers

  • Rubber and Ivory in the Congo during the Age of Imperialism

  • GREAT RIFT VALLEY Made travel and trade difficult.

    Influenced migration forcing people to move

    in a north-south direction.

    100 mile wide canyon


Effects of geography1

EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHY

COASTLINE SMOOTH, BAD FOR TRADE

LAKES IMPORTANT SOURCE OF

Lake Victoria FISH, MAJOR SOURCE OF

Lake Tanganyika PROTEIN IN AFRICA

Lake Chad

Lake Malawi (Nyasa)


Algeria 1954 1962
Algeria 1954-1962

  • French wanted to keep Arab-Berber people from winning independence

  • Muslim Nationalists set up the FLN – National Liberation Front

  • Public opinion in France turned against the war

  • Charles de Gaulle became President in 1958 – 4 years later Algeria achieved independence


Independence movements
INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS

KENYA: JOMO KENYATA


Kenya and jomo kenyatta
KENYA AND JOMO KENYATTA

  • The British held Kenya as part of the East Africa Protectorate.

  • A secret terrorist organization called the Mau Mau existed in Kenya to fight the British! The British called a state of emergency against the Mau Mau’s guerrilla activities.

  • The native tribe of Kenya are the Kikuyu.

  • Jomo Kenyatta led the independence movement and ended up in jail.

  • Kenyatta and the Mau Mau were successful against the British in 1963.

  • Kenyatta became the first president of the free Kenya.



Ghana independence movement

GHANA: INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT

The British held the territory called the Gold Coast.

Kwame Nkrumah led the independence movement

Nkrumah believed in non-violence.

In 1957 The Gold Coast got its independence and

was then called Ghana.

Kwame Nkrumah became Ghana’s first President


Cold war regional organizations

New African nations affected by superpowers

Supplied with military weapons by superpower they supported

Conflicts in Ethiopia and Somalia

1963 OAU Organization of African Unity

2001 African Union – modeled after the UN

Cold War & Regional Organizations


Un disaster relief and military intervention
UN: disaster relief and Military Intervention

  • African nations joined the UN and served on peacekeeping missions

  • Focus has been on healthcare, literacy, economic problems and racism

  • UN, International Red Cross, Doctors w/o Borders deal with famine

    • 2003 Congo and Liberia


Critical issues
Critical Issues

  • Drought and famine – desertification, 1980s Ethiopia and Somalia

  • Deforestation of Rain Forests

  • AIDS epidemics in South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya and Botswana

    • UN estimated in 2000 over 30 million dies of disease


Problems to unity and stability
Problems to Unity and Stability

  • Civil War

  • Crisis of 1980s

  • One-Party rule

  • Military rule


Economic development
Economic development

  • Socialism or Capitalism

  • Cash Crops or Food

  • Urban or Rural

  • Debt Crisis

    • Soaring oil prices

    • Crushed developing African economies

    • World Bank loans refused

      • Increased unemployment


A case study south africa apartheid rise and fall
A CASE STUDY: SOUTH AFRICAAPARTHEID: RISE AND FALL

  • APARTHEID – THE LEGAL SEPARATION OF THE RACES RULED IN SOUTH AFRICA FROM 1948--1991


The afrikaaner dutch government
THE AFRIKAANER (DUTCH GOVERNMENT)

  • The Afrikaaner govt. gained control of the South Africa in 1948

  • They instituted Apartheid!

  • Each group had separate living areas

  • People of color were subjected to certain rules/laws!



Apartheid laws rules

"Bantustans"

APARTHEID LAWS/RULES

  • People of color must carry Pass Books around as identification.

  • Intermarriage between white people and people of color is forbidden.

  • Strikes by black workers were outlawed.

  • Jobs were restricted.

  • Separate public facilities and transportation were in existence.

  • Black people had no representation in government.

  • BANTU AUTHORITIES ACT established Bantustans or homelands

    where black people would live

  • Separate educational facilities for white and black


Resistance to apartheid

NELSON MANDELA ----AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

STEVE BIKO---------------BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT

ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU-----PEACEFUL RESISTANCE TO THE AFRIKAANER GOVERNMENT

RESISTANCE TO APARTHEID


Resistance to apartheid the anc and mandela
RESISTANCE TO APARTHEIDTHE ANC AND MANDELA


Nelson mandela symbol of resistance

NELSON MANDELA: SYMBOL OF RESISTANCE

Nelson Mandela was arrested in the 1960’s for conspiracy against the government. He remained in jail for over 20 years. He was released by President F.W. deKlerk in 1989. By 1994 Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. People waited in line for days to vote in the first free elections!



STEVE BIKO

Steve Biko was arrested by the South African police. He was murdered while in custody in 1977. Thousands showed up for his funeral and he became a symbol of resistance to the white oppression. His movement lived on after his death. The white police officers who beat him did not answer for their crimes until the 1990’s.

Biko’s grave


Archbishop desmond tutu

Archbishop Desmond Tutu

A man of the cloth who spoke out against apartheid!Tutu appealed to the world’s nations to stop trading with South Africa until it cleaned up its human rights record! Many people respected this religious figure!


The end of apartheid

THE END OF APARTHEID

Many world nations put pressure (economic sanctions on South Africa which crippled the economy.

1989 F.W. deKlerk became President.

1990 deKlerk lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela from prison.

deKlerk began to repeal the apartheid laws, dismantling the system of racial separation.

April 1994 was set as the first free elections and for a new constitution.

In 1994 Nelson Mandela won the presidential election hands down!

FW. deKlerk



Civil war and ethnic tension in recent times

CIVIL WAR AND ETHNIC TENSIONIN RECENT TIMES

ETHNIC TENSION IN RWANDA BETWEEN HUTUS AND TUTSIS LED TO GENOCIDE 1990’S

CIVIL WAR, DROUGHT, FAMINE IN SOMALIA IN 1992 LED TO U.S. INTERVENTION (Black Hawk Down)


THE AIDS CRISIS: THE CONTINENT WITH THE MOST CASES!

South Africa has one of the highest death rates due to AIDS


AIDS CASES!

The main problem is education about how AIDS spreads as well as the fact that there is a lack of money in the African nations to purchase the AIDS drugs available in other countries!


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