Energy in a Cell. Chapter 9. Cell Energy. Energy is essential to life Plants trap light energy in sunlight and store it in the bonds of certain molecules to use later Other organisms get energy from eating those green plants What processes can you name that require energy?.
Energy in a Cell
Energy is essential to life
Plants trap light energy in sunlight and store it in the bonds of certain molecules to use later
Other organisms get energy from eating those green plants
What processes can you name that require energy?
An energy molecule in the cell that allows for quick and easy access to energy when needed by the cell’s organelles.
A type of chemical energy
Releases energy when the chemical bonds are broken
Phosphate groups are negatively charged
Negative doesn’t like being next to negative
A small amount of energy is required to attach one phosphate group to adenosine (AMP)
When a second phosphate group is added, this requires a lot more energy (ADP)
When a third phosphate group is added, this requires an even greater amount of energy (ATP)
The process of forming ATP requires much energy
Energy of ATP becomes available to a cell when the molecule is broken down
When a cell requires energy, ATP goes to the cell, attaches to the binding site, and a phosphate group is broken off – this gives off energy for the cell and the ATP molecule becomes ADP (fig. 9.2 pg. 223)
In order for ADP to become ATP again it goes to the mitochondria and gets recharged (another phosphate group gets attached)
In chloroplasts there are thylakoid disks/grana
Light-dependent reactions happen in the thylakoid membranes
To trap the energy in the sunlight, the thylakoid membranes contain pigments.
Pigments are molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight
Chlorophyll is the most common type of pigment in chloroplasts
We see colors that are reflected and not absorbed. Green pigments absorb all light except green (chlorophyll)
In the fall, trees stop producing chlorophyll, which results in the different colors seen.
(stored as glucose)
First phase of photosynthesis requires sunlight.
A light-dependent reaction involves sunlight striking molecules of chlorophyll and exciting an electron.
Excited electrons are passed from chlorophyll to an electron transport chain
Electron transport chain- a series of proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane
Once in the electron transport chain, each protein in the chain passes the energized electrons along to the next protein-
some energy is lost during each pass-
lost energy can be used to form ATP from ADP OR to pump hydrogen ions into the center of the thylakoid disc.
After electrons have traveled down the electron transport chain, they are re-energized in a second photosystem and passed down a second electron transport chain- electrons are still very energized
Electrons are then transferred to the stroma of the chloroplast
Transferred by an electron carrier molecule called NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
NADP+ can combine with two excited electrons and a hydrogen ion (H+) to become NADPH.
NADPH stores the energy until it can transfer it to the stroma- this is where NADPH will play an important role in the light-independent reaction.
2nd phase of photosynthesis
Does NOT require light
Takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast
Aka Calvin cycle- called a cycle bc one of the products is needed to start the cycle over
Follow the cycle on pg. 229
1) CARBON FIXATION-The carbon atom from CO2 bonds with a five-carbon sugar called ribulosebiphosphate (RuBP) to form an unstable six carbon sugar.
2) FORMATION OF 3-CARBON MOLECULES-The six-carbon sugar immediately splits to form two three-carbon molecules.
3) USE OF ATP AND NADPH-A series of reactions involving ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions converts the three-carbon molecules into phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), three-carbon sugars with higher energy bonds.
4) SUGAR PRODUCTION- One out of every six molecules of PGAL is transferred to the cytoplasm and used in the synthesis of sugars and other carbohydrates. After three rounds of the cycle, six molecules of PGAL are produced.
5) RuBP IS REPLENISHED- Five molecules of PGAL, each with three carbon atoms, produce three molecules of the five-carbon RuBP. This replenishes the RuBP that was used up, and the cycle can continue.
a series of reactions in the cytoplasm of a cell in which glucose (a 6 carbon molecule) is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid (3 carbon molecules).
ATP- it takes 2 molecules of ATP to start the process of glycolysis, and only 4 ATPs are made, therefore this process is not very energy efficient.
*only 2 molecules of ATP are produced from the breakdown of one glucose molecule.
NAD+ (nicotinamidedinucleotide) - just as photosynthesis has the energy carrier NADP+; glycolysishas an energy carrier called NAD+.
*NAD+ forms NADH when carrying an electron.
At the end of glycolysis the pyruvicacid molecules produced move to the mitochondria,thepowerhouses or ATP producers of the cell.
The Citric Acid Cycle: “The breakdown of Glucose”-a series of chemical reactions similar to the Calvin Cycle, but opposite in purpose.
Calvin Cycle - forms glucose in photosynthesis
Citric Acid Cycle - breaks down glucose in cellular respiration
Materials needed :
to break down glucose, two electron carriers are
b) FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
The Citric Acid Cycle (CAC) produces a number of molecules:
a) 1 ATP is produced
b) 3 NADH + H+ are produced
c) 1 FADH2 molecule is produced
1) formation of citric acid- a 2 carbon acetyl CoAcombines with a 4 carbon compound called oxaloaceticacid, forming a 6 carbon molecule called citric acid.
2) formation of CO2- one molecule of CO2 is formed from the citric acid cycle which reduces the citric acid molecule to a 5 carbon molecule called ketoglutaric acid.*from this rxn, one molecule of NADH +H+ is made from one NAD+
3) formation of second CO2- another molecule of CO2 is formed and released from the ketoglutaric acid; this results in a 4 carbon compound called succinic acid.*from this rxn, one molecule of ATP and one molecule of NADH + H+ are formed.
4) recycling of oxaloacetic acid- succinic acid undergoes a series of rxns which form FADH and NADH + H+ and oxaloacetic acid; this is then available for the next cycle to occur.
Succinic -> fumaric -> malic -> oxaloacetic
Function- move energized molecules; NADH & FADH2 pass energized molecules from protein to protein releasing small amounts of energy with each pass.
Location - the inner membrane of the mitochondria
a) NADH & FADH2 pass energized molecules from protein to protein; small amounts of energy are released with each pass.
b) some energy is used to form ATP, while some is used to pump H+ ions into the center of the mitochondria.
c) as H+ ions are pumped into the center of the mitochondria, the center becomes more (+),while the outside becomes more (-). Since the outside is more (-) it will attract more (+)’s or more H+ ions,creating an electrochemical gradient.
d) The electrochemical gradient drives the inner membrane of the mitochondria to form ATP.
e) The final electron acceptor in the ETC is Oxygen. The oxygen reacts with H+ ions to form water molecules.
The importance of Oxygen (O2)
If oxygen is not available for the ETC, then the chain cannot pass along energized electrons; if electrons cannot be passed, then there is no room to accept more electrons and a blockage results. Therefore, cellular respiration cannot occur.
a) lactic acid fermentation
b) alcoholic fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
*occurs during anaerobic conditions when oxygen is not available as the final electron acceptor in the ETC, therefore a “back-up” occurs.
a) as NADH and FADH2 try to pass their
energized electrons onto the next protein in the
ETC, they are rejected.
b) if NADH and FADH2 cannot pass on their
energized electrons, then NADH and FADH2
cannot be converted back to NAD+ & FAD, which
are needed to keep the CAC and glycolysis
*often used by yeast cells to produce CO2 and ethyl alcohol.
*anaerobic process - used to make bread dough “rise” and brew alcohols.
Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration