Clear, Hold, and Build
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Clear, Hold, and Build. Historical References on Consolidation Ops and IDAD*. FM 33-5 Psychological Operations Techniques and Procedures 1966 FM 31-16 Counterguerrilla Operations1967 FM 31-73 Advisor Handbook for Stability Operations1967

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Clear hold and build

Clear, Hold, and Build


Clear hold and build

Historical References on Consolidation Ops and IDAD*

FM 33-5 Psychological Operations Techniques

and Procedures 1966

FM 31-16 Counterguerrilla Operations1967

FM 31-73 Advisor Handbook for Stability Operations1967

FM 33-1 Psychological Operations1968

FMFM 8-2 Counterinsurgency Operations (USMC) 1980

FM 90-8 Counterguerrilla Operations1986

FM 100-20 Low Intensity Conflict1990

FM 7-98 Operations in a Low-Intensity Conflict1992

FM 31-20-3 Foreign Internal Defense1994

JP 3-57 Joint Doctrine for Civil-Military Operations2001

FM 3-07 Support and Stability Operations 2003

ST 3-05.206 Counter Urban Insurgency Planning Guide2003

Counterinsurgency Operations: Southern and Western2007

Afghanistan Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures

* IDAD in many but not all references


Force and capacity by phases

Offense

Offense

Offense

Defense

Defense

Defense

Stability

Stability

Stability

US Civil-Military Capacity

Insurgent Capacity

Force and Capacity by Phases

Root Cause grievances

identified

Immediate

problems

addressed

Underlying

Issues

resolved

TRANSITION

TRANSITION

US/CF Advisors

HNSF Capacity

HN Gov’t Capacity

Insurgent Perspective Phase III/II Phase I Phase I

(Guerrilla/War of Movement) (Latent / Insipient) (Latent / Insipient)

COIN Perspective Clear Stage Hold Stage Build Stage

(Offense) (Defense) (Stability)

People’s Perspective Hostile (Red)Neutral (Amber) Positive (Green)

Addressing Root Causes (Limited) (Immediate Problems) (Underlying Issues)


Clear hold and build

Offense

Offense

Offense

Defense

Defense

Defense

Stability

Stability

Stability

Operations


Clear hold and build

Operations

Civil Defense Forces

HN Police Advisors

Security

Forces

US/HN Military

People

(Root Causes)

Underlying Issues

Problems

Transition

Criteria

Transition

Criteria

Underground

Auxiliary

Insurgents

Guerrillas

Local

Government

Reforms

and Reconstruction

Rule of Law

Essential Services

Offense

Offense

Offense

Defense

Defense

Defense

Stability

Stability

Stability


Clear hold and build

Offense

Defense

Stability

CLEAR

(Offense)

Civil Defense Forces

HN Police Advisors

Security

Forces

US/HN Military

People

(Root Causes)

Underlying Issues

Problems

Transition

Criteria

Transition

Criteria

Underground

Auxiliary

Insurgents

Guerrillas

Local

Government

Reforms

and Reconstruction

Rule of Law

Essential Services


Clear hold and build

CLEAR

HOLD

(Offense)

(Defense)

Civil Defense Forces

HN Police Advisors

Security

Forces

US/HN Military

People

(Root Causes)

Underlying Issues

Problems

Transition

Criteria

Transition

Criteria

Underground

Auxiliary

Insurgents

Guerrillas

Local

Government

Reforms

and Reconstruction

Rule of Law

Essential Services

Offense

Defense

Stability


Clear hold and build

CLEAR

HOLD

BUILD

(Offense)

(Defense)

(Stability)

Civil Defense Forces

HN Police Advisors

Security

Forces

US/HN Military

People

(Root Causes)

Underlying Issues

Problems

Transition

Criteria

Transition

Criteria

Underground

Auxiliary

Insurgents

Guerrillas

Local

Government

Reforms

and Reconstruction

Rule of Law

Essential Services

Offense

Defense

Stability


Clear hold and build

CLEAR

HOLD

BUILD

(Offense)

(Defense)

(Stability)

Civil Defense Forces

HN Police Advisors

Security

Forces

US/HN Military

People

(Root Causes)

Underlying Issues

Problems

Underground

Auxiliary

Insurgents

Guerrillas

Local

Government

Reforms

and Reconstruction

Rule of Law

Essential Services

Transition

Criteria

Transition

Criteria


Clear hold and build

Objective

Clear, Hold, and Build is a civil-military action combining U.S. and HN military/police, community leaders, and local HN government in support of the host nation’s Internal Defense and Development (IDAD) program.

Conduct

Internal Defense

Establish

Internal Development


Clear hold and build

Operations

Raids

Ambush

Reconnaissance

Presence patrol

Traffic Control Points

Cordon and Search

Cordon and Knock

PsyOps

Humanitarian Civic Action (MedEx)

Stability


Clear hold and build

Why clear, hold, build?

- Separate insurgents from population

- Conditions for economic, political, and social reforms

- Safeguards the population and infrastructure

- HN security forces to improve/take the lead

- HN police and local government maintain rule of law

- Addresses the root causes of the insurgency

- Repatriates and resettles IDPs and refugees

- Uses local workers and materials to rebuild and reform

- Deny the enemy active and passive support

- Gains the support of the populace


Clear hold and build

5 x Stages of Clear, Hold, Build

(1) Preparation stage

(2) Clear stage(Offensive operations)

(3) Hold stage(Defensive operations)

(4) Build stage(Stability operations)

(5) Completion and Transition stage


Clear hold and build

Preparation Stage

Planning, training, organizing, and equipping between civil and military forces

Typical activities during the preparation stage include

Assessment of the situation

Conduct overall planning

Assign responsibilities to civil and military elements

Conduct joint-combined training and rehearsals

Begin Information Engagement (IE) operations

Establish way-stations for basic services to civilians being displaced


Clear hold and build

Site Selection Matrix

Perspective


Clear hold and build

Clear

Priority


Clear hold and build

Hold

Priority


Clear hold and build

Build

Priority


Clear hold and build

Enemy


Clear hold and build

Forecast

Hold

  • Insurgency:Phase I but may attempt to counterattack/infiltrate area

Forecast

Foco: Attack contractors, reconstruction teams, mortar/rocket, local patrols, support/logistic units to make the counterinsurgents loose legitimacy.

Urban Terrorist: Attack patrols and police traffic control points to get them to overreact against the people.

Protracted :Ago after infrastructure, start riots, IO, with underground

Subversive: Infiltrate and conduct assassination of those impeding their infiltration, attempt to present political wing or cease fire, stir up sectarian violence, drive a wedge between aspects of the population, aggravate cycles of violence with underground


Clear hold and build

Forecast

Hold

  • Insurgency:Phase I but may attempt to counterattack/infiltrate area

Forecast

  • Guerrillas

  • - Remain in hiding

  • - Conduct sabotage and terrorism to intimidate

  • - Mass to conduct an counterattack

  • - Conduct attacks outside the cleared area


  • Clear hold and build

    Forecast

    Hold

    • Insurgency:Phase I but may attempt to counterattack/infiltrate area

    Forecast

    • Auxiliary

    • - Transition to support underground activities

  • - HUMINT

  • - Recruiting

  • - Counterintelligence

  • - Populace and Resource Control to intimidate those cooperating with COIN forces

  • - Information Operations/Propaganda


  • Clear hold and build

    Forecast

    Hold

    • Insurgency:Phase I but may attempt to counterattack/infiltrate area

    Forecast

    Underground

    - Strike military logistics units and LOCs

    - Sabotage Structures with economic, political, cultural, social significance

    - Spark sectarian violence

    - Conduct sniper operations (random terrorism)

    - Tactical assassination (participating civilians and families)

    Leadership

    - Information Operations/Propaganda

    - Infiltrate HN government


    Clear hold and build

    Forecast

    Build

    • Insurgency:Phase I but may attempt to counterattack/infiltrate area

    Forecast

    Subversive Strategy:Insurgent will infiltrate and conduct assassination of those impeding their infiltration of the government and bribe elected officials in an attempt to infiltrate or gather intelligence. They will attempt to legitimize themselves by presenting a political wing or call for a cease fire. They will stir up sectarian violence, attempt to drive a wedge between aspects of the population, and aggravate cycles of violence with their underground.

    Foco Strategy:Insurgent will attack contractors, government employees, local media deemed friendly to the government or foreign media, and local civilian defense forces. In this strategy the insurgent will not be able to sustain prolonged or effective subversive activity. They will focus on delegitimizing the government by hitting soft targets with sniper, explosives, or in their homes. Insurgents may focus on hit-and-run ambushes against convoys outside the cleared area. Their goal is still to make the counterinsurgents loose legitimacy.

    Urban Terrorist Strategy:Unlike those in the Foco strategy, insurgents in the Urban Terrorist Strategy have a better chance due to their use of better secrecy of decentralized cells and ability to operate in populated areas to conduct sabotage, subversion, assassination, and sniper operation against members of the government and police and civil defense forces to get the less professional members of the security forces to overreact against the people.

    Protracted :Insurgents typically have a superior ability to conduct covert operations with their underground. Generally their actions are more subtle - using propaganda to spreads lies and discontent among the different aspects of the population and between the government and people. They may have the ability to conduct sabotage and assassination. They will blame the action on the US or the HN government and security force to enrage the people, and demonstrate the government is ineffective. Insurgents in this advanced strategy have the discipline and patience to attack and sabotage infrastructure which generally only yields results over a longer period. Guerrillas will utilize diversionary attacks in other areas to attempt draw out the security forces (trading Space for Time - drawing out the armed forces and then attacking the cleared area to delegitimize the government trading Time for Will).


    Clear hold and build

    Forecast

    Build

    Guerrillas: Will conduct a counterattack if security forces are drawn out of cleared area by insurgent diversionary attacks.

    Auxiliary: Attempt to gather intelligence and spread disinformation among the people. Auxiliary member’s effort reduced due to lack of active and passive support of the people and their concerns of being turned into civilian authorities.

    Underground: Their activities will be largely defensive. They include:

    - Conduct passive intelligence collection and HUMINT

    - Counterintelligence

    - Disinformation

    - Caches of high value equipment (AA weapons)

    - Safeguard safe houses

    - Protect sensitive information and high value equipment

    - Eliminate witnesses to their activities


    Clear hold and build

    Information Operations / Engagement


    Clear hold and build

    Information Engagement

    Stage I – Preparation


    Clear hold and build

    Information Engagement

    Stage II – Clear


    Clear hold and build

    Information Engagement

    Stage III – Hold


    Clear hold and build

    Information Engagement

    Stage IV – Build


    Clear hold and build

    Information Engagement

    Stage V – Completion


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