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BIOCHEMISTRY. ½ cup of CHEX MIX contains 13 g of carbs = 4% daily value…. How much more can you have the rest of the day??? _ 4 _ = 13 100 X X= 325 g.

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  • These spinach imposters contain less than 2 percent of “spinach powder” seasoning. Yum! And the wraps’ green color? Courtesy of food dyes yellow #5 and blue #1.

  • When was the last time you saw a flowering field of disodium phosphate? Or how about a fresh crop of maltodextrin? Didn’t think so.These cheese puffs consist largely of corn, but they’ve been processed to the point that no 20th-century farmer would ever recognize them as food.


  • In the short run, food choices make a difference. For example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Ask students what snacks they often buy and if they look at the nutrition facts label. For those students that do look at the label, what do they look for when choosing a snack?

  • Remember the largest amount of ingredients found in your product are listed on the label first and the smaller % amounts in the bottom


Carbon
Carbon example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Can form large and complex structures

  • Organic Chemistry- study of carbon componds


Organic vs inorganic compounds
Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Organic Compounds – Compounds that contain carbons.

    • Lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates

  • Inorganic Compounds – Compounds that do NOT contain carbon.

    • Salts, water, oxygen


Macromolecules
Macromolecules example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Macromolecules – “Giant molecules” made from smaller molecules

    • Formed by a process known as polymerization, in which large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together.

    • The smaller units, or monomers, join together to form polymers.


Organic compounds
Organic Compounds example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Four groups found in living things are:

    • Carbohydrates

    • Lipids

    • Nucleic Acids

    • Proteins


Carbohydrates carbo carbon hydrate h20
Carbohydrates example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.(carbo =carbon hydrate = H20)

  • Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

    • Ratio of 1 : 2 : 1.


Uses of carbohydrates
Uses of Carbohydrates example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Living things use carbohydrates as:

    • Main source of energy (starches and sugars)

    • Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes


Uses of carbohydrates1
Uses of Carbohydrates example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Animals

    • Store excess sugar in the form of glycogen

      • Located/made in liver and muscles

  • Plants

    • Store excess sugar in the form of starch for energy

    • Use tough, flexible cellulose fibers to give them their strength and rigidity

  • Both

    • Glucose is main energy source for cells


Classification of sugars
Classification of Sugars example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Monosaccharides – Single (simple) sugar molecules

    • Examples: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose

  • Disaccharides – Double sugar molecules

    • Examples:

      • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose

      • Glucose + Galactose = Lactose

      • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose

  • Polysaccharides – More than two monosaccharide molecules

    • Examples: Starch, Cellulose, Chitin, Glycogen


Classification of sugars1
Classification of Sugars example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.


Lipids
Lipids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Common categories of lipids are

    • Fats

    • Oils

    • Waxes

  • Functions:

    • Can be used to store energy

    • Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings

    • Can serve as chemical messengers (steroids only)

  • Generally not soluble in water


Structure of lipids
Structure of Lipids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen and oxygen atoms

  • Usually has relatively small amounts of oxygen

  • Glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acids (Triglycerides)

Steroid (4 rings)


Saturated and unsaturated lipids
Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Saturated - If each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond.

    • “Saturated” means it has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

    • Solid at room temperature

    • Examples – Cholesterol, butter, chocolate


Saturated and unsaturated lipids1
Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Unsaturated- If there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid.

    • Liquid at room temperature

    • Examples - Corn oil, sesame oil, canola oil, and peanut oil


Protein
Protein example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Proteins - Macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

  • Made up of chains of amino acids folded into complex structures.

    • Amino Acids - Compounds with an amino group (−NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (−COOH) on the other end.


Amino acids
Amino Acids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • There are more than 20 different amino acids.

  • Any amino acid may be joined to any other amino acid by bonding an amino group to a carboxyl group by dehydration synthesis.

*When the length of a polypeptide (chain of aa) is more than ~100 aa the molecule is called a protein*


Amino acids1
Amino Acids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • There are more than 20 different amino acids.

  • What distinguishes one amino acid from another is the R-group (functional group) section of the molecule.


Functions of proteins
Functions of Proteins example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Each protein has a specific role.

    • Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.

      • Enzymes

    • Some are used to form bones and muscles and tissues.

      • Structurally = collagen and keratin

    • Others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.

      • Antibodies

      • Transport channels in the cell membrane


Nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Nucleic acids - Macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

  • Made up of repeating units called nucleotides

    • Each nucleotide contains:

      • 5-Carbon Sugar

      • Phosphate Group

      • Nitrogenous Base


Nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Function:

    • Store genetic information

    • Transmit genetic information

  • Two Kinds of Nucleic Acids:

    • Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

      • Contains the sugar ribose

      • Single stranded

    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

      • Contains the sugar deoxyribose

      • Double stranded


Dehydration synthesis
Dehydration Synthesis example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Dehydration synthesis – A chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules.

  • Used to put together monomers to build polymers.

    • The “dehydration” part is the removal of water

    • The “synthesis” part is the joining of the two smaller compounds to create one larger one

  • TRICK: There will always be one less water produced than the number of monomers joining together.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyDnnD3fMaU


Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Hydrolysis – The rupture of chemical bonds by the addition of water.

  • Used to break down polymers into their monomers.

  • http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/Make%20and%20Brake%20Em.htm


Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Chemical Reaction - A process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.

    • Always involve the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products.


Chemical reactions and water
Chemical Reactions and Water example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Molecules cannot react chemically unless they are in solution, so virtually all chemical reactions in the body depend upon water’s solvent properties.

  • Most abundant inorganic compound in the body (accounts for 2/3 of body weight).


Chemical reactions1
Chemical Reactions example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Reactants - The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction.

  • Products - The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.

    Na + Cl  NaCl

Reactants

Products


Energy in reactions
Energy in Reactions example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Because chemical reactions involve breaking and forming bonds, they involve changes in energy.

  • Will the chemical reaction occur?

    • Chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously.

      • Energy is released in the form of heat, light, and sound.

    • Chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy.

      • Every organism must have a source of energy to carry out necessary chemical reactions.


Organisms and energy
Organisms and Energy example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Plants

    • Get their energy by trapping and storing the energy from sunlight in energy-rich compounds.

  • Animals

    • Get their energy when they consume plants or other animals.

    • Release the energy needed to grow tall, to breathe, or to think through the chemical reactions that occur when humans metabolize, or break down, digested food.


Activation energy
Activation Energy example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Activation Energy - The energy that is needed to get a reaction started.

    • The peak of each graph represents the energy needed for the reaction to go forward.

    • The difference between this required energy and the energy of the reactants is the activation energy.


Catalysts
Catalysts example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Some chemical reactions that make life possible are too slow or have activation energies that are too high to make them practical for living tissue and cells.

  • Catalyst - A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering a reaction’s activation energy.


Enzymes
Enzymes example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Enzymes - Proteins that act as biological catalysts.

    • Speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells. (by lowering activation energy)

    • Very specific, generally catalyzing only one chemical reaction.

    • Part of an enzyme's name is usually derived from the reaction it catalyzes.


How do enzymes work
How Do Enzymes Work? example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Substrates - The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

  • The Enzyme-Substrate Complex 

    • Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react.

    • This site reduces the energy needed for reaction.

    • Each protein has a specific, complex shape.

    • Active Site – The site on the enzyme where substrates bind.

      • The active site and the substrates have complementary shapes, which is often compared to a lock and key model.


Enzyme substrate complex
Enzyme Substrate Complex example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

Active site


Regulation of enzyme activity
Regulation of Enzyme Activity example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • Enzymes can be affected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction such as:

    • pH

    • Temperature

    • Cells contain proteins that help to turn key enzymes “on” or “off”


Animations to help explain
Animations to help explain: example, a diet that’s low in iron—typical among teenage girls—may result in anemia, which causes paleness and a tired feeling. A teenage athlete who cuts back on calories to trim down may not have enough energy for peak performance. And eating more calories than you use often shows up as extra pounds of body fat.

  • http://www.lpscience.fatcow.com/jwanamaker/animations/Enzyme%20activity.html


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