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Systems. Chapters 35-40. Chapter 35: The Nervous System.

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Chapters 35-40

Chapter 35 the nervous system
Chapter 35: The Nervous System

  • Function: Controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli

  • Structures:

    • Neurons

    • Brain

    • Spinal Cord

Nervous system
Nervous System

  • Neurons – cells that transmit electrical signals called impulses

  • Structure of a neuron:

    • Cell body—contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm.

    • Dendrites—short, branched extensions that spread out from the cell body.

    • Axon—long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body.

    • Myelin sheath—insulating membrane that surrounds the axon

Nervous system1
Nervous System

  • Brain – Contains approximately 100 billion neurons and has a mass of about 1.4 kg.

  • Structures:

    • The cerebrum—responsible for the voluntary, or conscious, activities of the body.

    • The cerebellum—located at the back of the skull and coordinates and balances the actions of muscles.

    • The brain stem—connects the brain and spinal cord.

      • Two regions: pons and the medulla oblongata

      • Controls blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and swallowing

    • Thalamus and hypothalamus

      • Thalamus—receives messages from all of the sensory receptors throughout the body and then relays it to the proper region of the cerebrum.

      • Hypothalamus—control center for hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature.

Nervous system2
Nervous System

  • Spinal Cord

  • Main communications link between the brain and the rest of the body.

  • Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord, connecting the brain to all the different parts of the body.

  • Reflex—quick, automatic response to a stimulus.

    • Allows the body to respond immediately

Nervous system3
Nervous System

  • Sensory Receptors (5 types)

  • Pain Receptors –respond to chemicals released by damaged cells

  • Thermoreceptors – detect variations in temperature (skin, body core, & hypothalamus)

  • Mechanoreceptors – sensitive to touch, pressure, stretching of muscles, sound and motion

  • Chemoreceptors –sensitive to chemicals in the external environment (nose and taste buds)

  • Photoreceptors – sensitive to light (eyes)

  • Video

Chapter 36 skeletal system
Chapter 36: Skeletal System

  • Function: supports the body, protects internal organs, provides for movement, stores mineral reserves, and provides a site for blood cell formation

  • Structures:

    • Bones

    • Ligaments

Chapter 36 skeletal system1
Chapter 36: Skeletal System Skeletal System

  • Bones

  • A solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salts.

  • Periosteum—is a tough layer of connective tissue surrounding the bone.

  • Haversion canals—network of tubes running through compact bone containing blood vessels.

  • Bone marrow—red and yellow

    • Red—produces red blood cells, some kinds of white blood cells and platelets

    • Yellow—is made up primarily from fat cells

Chapter 36 skeletal system2
Chapter 36: Skeletal System

  • Ligaments – tough connective tissue that hold bones together

  • Joint – place where one bone attaches to another bone

  • Immovable joints—allow no movement. Bone are interlocked and held together

    • Bones in the skull

  • Slightly moveable joints—small amount of restricted movement.

    • Between adjacent vertebrae

  • Freely moveable joints—movement in one or more directions

    • Ball-and-socket, hinge joints, pivot joints and saddle joints

Chapter 36 muscular system
Chapter 36: Muscular System System

  • Function: Movement, however, the type of movement is dependent on the location and type of muscle present

  • Structures:

    • Skeletal Muscles

    • Smooth Muscles

    • Cardiac Muscles

Chapter 36 muscular system1
Chapter 36: Muscular System System

  • Skeletal Muscles—usually attached to bones.

  • Are large, striated, have many nuclei, and vary in length from 1 mm to about 30 cm.

  • Often called muscle fibers.

  • Responsible for voluntary movements.

Chapter 36 muscular system2
Chapter 36: Muscular System System

  • Smooth muscles—Usually not under voluntary control.

  • Spindle-shaped, has one nucleus, and is not striated.

  • Found the walls of hollow structures such as the stomach, blood vessels, and intestines.

  • Move food through your digestive tract, controls the way blood flows through your circulatory system, and decrease the size of your pupils in bright light.

  • Can function without nervous stimulation.

Chapter 36 muscular system3
Chapter 36: Muscular System System

  • Found in just one place in the body—the heart.

  • Is striated like skeletal muscle—cells are smaller.

  • Usually have one nucleus, but may have two.

  • Not under the direct control of the CNS and are connected to their neighbors by gap junctions.

Chapter 36 muscular system4
Chapter 36: Muscular System System

  • How muscles and bones interact

  • Skeletal muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissues called tendons.

  • Most skeletal muscles work in opposing pairs.

    • When one muscle contracts the other relaxes.

    • Muscles of the upper arm.

  • A controlled movement requires contraction by both muscles.

Chapter 36 integumentary system
Chapter 36: Integumentary System System

  • Function: Serves as a barrier against infection and injury, helps to regulate body temperature, removes waste products from the body, and provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

  • Structures:

    • Skin

    • Hair

    • Nails

Chapter 36 integumentary system1
Chapter 36: Integumentary System System

  • Skin: two layers

    • Epidermis

    • Dermis

  • Epidermis—outer layer of the skin

    • The outside of the epidermis is made up of dead cells.

    • Inner layer is made up of living cells.

  • Dermis—inner layer of skin

    • Interacts with other body systems to maintain homeostasis by helping to regulate body temperature.

Chapter 36 integumentary system2
Chapter 36: Integumentary System System

  • Hair and Nails

  • Basic structure is keratin

  • Hair

    • Protects the scalp from ultraviolet light.

    • Provides insulation from the cold.

    • Prevent dirt and other particles from entering the body.

  • Nails

    • Grow at an average rate of 3 mm per month.

    • Grow from an area of rapidly dividing cells. known as the nail root.

Chapter 37 circulatory system
Chapter 37: Circulatory System System

  • Functions: Transportation system of the body and is involved in respiration, nutrition, waste removal, immunity, and thermal regulation

  • Structures:

    • Heart

    • Vessels

    • Blood

Chapter 37 circulatory system1
Chapter 37: Circulatory System System

  • The Heartis a hollow organ that is about the size of your clenched fist.

  • Contracts on average 72 time a minute, pumping about 70 mL of blood with each contraction.

  • Each side contains two chambers— the upper chamber, which receives blood is the atrium, and the lower chamber, which pumps blood out of the heart, is the ventricle.

  • The Heart

Chapter 37 circulatory system2
Chapter 37: Circulatory System System

  • Circulation through the heart

  • Blood enters the right atrium of the heart, from the rest of the body, through the superior or inferior Vena Cava.

  • From the right atrium it moves to the right ventricle where it is pumped to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries.

  • The now oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium.

  • Lastly, the blood moves down into the left ventricle were it is pumped to the rest of the body through the aorta.

Chapter 37 circulatory system3
Chapter 37: Circulatory System System

  • Vessels

  • 3 types

    • Arteries—carry blood away from the heart

      • Main artery leading away from the heart is the Aorta

    • Capillaries—have one layer of cells where diffusion and exchange of materials takes place

    • Veins—carry blood back to the heart

      • Blood reenters the heart through the inferior and superior Vena Cava

Chapter 37 circulatory system4
Chapter 37: Circulatory System System

  • Blood

  • Red Blood Cells—transport oxygen

    • Hemoglobin—iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it.

  • White Blood Cells—guard against infection, fight parasites, and attack bacteria.

  • Platelets—plasma proteins that make blood clotting possible

    • Hemophilia—genetic disorder in the blood clotting pathway.

Chapter 37 respiratory system
Chapter 37: Respiratory System System

  • Function: Basic function is to bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air, and tissues.

  • Structures: There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system:

    • The airway

    • Lungs

    • Muscles of respiration. 

Chapter 37 respiratory system1
Chapter 37: Respiratory System

  • The airway

    • The airway includes the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles

  • Pharynx—serves as a passageway for both air and food.

  • Larynx—contains two highly elastic folds of tissue known as the vocal cords.

  • Trachea—windpipe

  • Bronchi—two large passageways that lead from the trachea to the lungs.

Chapter 37 respiratory system2
Chapter 37: Respiratory System Respiratory System

  • The lungsare a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest

  • There are 150 million alveoli in each healthy lung.

  • Oxygen dissolves in the moisture on the inner surface of the alveoli and then diffuses across the thin-walled capillaries into the blood.

  • Carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction.

Chapter 37 respiratory system3
Chapter 37: Respiratory System Respiratory System

  • Muscles of Respiration

  • Diaphragm—large, flat muscle located at the bottom of the chest cavity.

  • When you breathe in, or inhale, the diaphragm contracts and the rib cage rises up.

    • Creates a partial vacuum.

    • Atmospheric pressure then fills the lungs with air.

  • Exhaling is passive. The rib cage lowers and the diaphragm muscle relaxes and the pressure in the chest cavity becomes greater than atmospheric pressure

Chapter 38 digestive system
Chapter 38: Digestive System Respiratory System

  • Function: The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body

  • Structures:

    • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, small intestine, and large intestine

Chapter 38 digestive system1
Chapter 38: Digestive System Respiratory System

  • Mouth

    • Chewing begins the process of mechanical digestion—the physical breakdown of large pieces into smaller pieces.

    • Saliva—contains amylase, an enzyme that breaks the chemical bonds in starches and releases sugars.

  • Esophagus

    • Food tube—carries food from the mouth to the stomach

Chapter 38 digestive system2
Chapter 38: Digestive System Respiratory System

  • Stomach—large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food.

    • Chemical digestion—pepsin (an enzyme) and hydrochloric acid begins the process of protein digestion

    • Mechanical digestion—muscles contract to churn and mix stomach fluids and food producing a mixture known as chyme.

  • Liver—produces bile which assists in breaking down fats

Chapter 38 digestive system3
Chapter 38: Digestive System Respiratory System

  • Small intestine—location of most of the chemical digestion and absorption of the food you eat

  • The folded surface of the small intestine is covered with fingerlike projections called villi.

    • Each villi is covered by thousands of fingerlike projections called microvilli.

    • Provide and enormous surface area for absorption.

  • Large intestine—function is to remove water from the undigested material that is left.

Chapter 38 excretory system
Chapter 38: Excretory System Respiratory System

  • Function: The excretory system maintains the homeostasis of several important internal conditions by controlling the excretion of substances out of the body. 

  • Structures:

    • Kidneys

    • Bladder

Chapter 38 excretory system1
Chapter 38: Excretory System Respiratory System

  • Kidneys—remove waste products from the blood; maintain blood pH; and regulate the water content of the blood, and therefore, blood volume.

  • Located on either side of the spinal column near the lower back.

  • Activity of kidneys is controlled by the composition of blood itself.

  • Bladder—saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted

Chapter 38 excretory system2
Chapter 38: Excretory System Respiratory System

  • If anything goes wrong with the kidneys, serious medical problems follow.

  • Transplant of a healthy kidney from a compatible donor.

  • Kidney dialysis—blood is removed from the body through a tube and pumped through special tubing that removes waste products.

    • The purified blood is then returned to the body.