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Self-Esteem Throughout the Human Lifespan. Week Five. Agenda. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development.

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Self esteem throughout the human lifespan l.jpg

Self-Esteem Throughout the Human Lifespan

Week Five


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Agenda

  • Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development

  • Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development

  • John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment


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Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development


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Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development


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John Bowlby’sTheory of Attachment

  • Primarily the seeking of proximity to an attachment figure in stressful situations.

  • Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them

  • Children use attachment figures (familiar people) as a secure base to explore from and return to.

  • Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment; these, in turn, lead to internal working models which will guide the individual's feelings, thoughts and expectations in later relationships.

  • Separation anxiety or grief following the loss of an attachment figure is considered to be a normal and adaptive response for an attached infant


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Self-Esteem in Infancy (birth to 1 year)

  • Erikson:

    • Parents provide reliability, care, and affection.

    • A lack of this will lead to mistrust

  • Freud:

    • Infant develops a sense of trust and comfort through feeding.

    • Deficit= Issues with dependency or aggression


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Self-Esteem in Infancy (birth to 1 year)

  • Branden:

    • Basic safety & security… satisfaction of physical needs, protection from the elements, & basic caretaking

    • Nurturing through touch, which conveys love, caring, comfort, support, nurturing


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Self-Esteem in Toddlerhood(Ages 1 through 3)

  • Erikson:

    • Personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence.

    • Success leads to feelings of autonomy

    • Failure results in feelings of shame and doubt

  • Freud:

    • Sense of accomplishment and independence; competent, productive, and creative adults

    • Deficit= Messy, wasteful, or destructive personality.

    • Deficit=Stringent, orderly, rigid, and obsessive


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Self-Esteem in Toddlerhood(Ages 1 through 3)

  • Bowlby:

    • Healthy attachments enable the child to handle new types of social interactions

    • Continues to develop through adulthood, helping cope with friendships, marriage and parenthood, all of which involve different behaviors and feelings

  • Branden:

    • Acceptance of a child’s thoughts and feelings allows them to learn self-acceptance

    • Psychological Visibility is responding to and interacting with a child in a congruent way… acknowledges the shared reality and existence of the child


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Self-Esteem in Pre-School(Ages 3 through 6)

  • Erikson:

    • Asserting control and power over the environment.

    • Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose.

    • Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt

  • Freud:

    • Children discover the differences between males and females

    • Deficit= Inferiority complex


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Self-Esteem in Pre-School(Ages 3 through 6)

  • Branden:

    • A child who is treated with love will internalize this and experience him/herself as lovable

    • An effective parent can convey anger or disappointment without signaling withdrawal of love

    • Age-appropriate nurturing requires parents to match their teaching and encouragement to the developmental needs of their child at each stage


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Self-Esteem in Pre-Adolescence(Ages 6 through 12)

  • Erikson:

    • Cope with new social and academic demands.

    • Success leads to a sense of competence

    • Failure results in feelings of inferiority

  • Freud:

    • Concerned with peer relationships, hobbies, and other interests; intellectual pursuits and social interactions.

    • This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence


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Self-Esteem in Pre-Adolescence(Ages 6 through 12)

  • Branden:

    • A concern with morality or ethics arises naturally in the early stages of our development, much as our other intellectual abilities develop, and progresses in step with the normal course of our maturation.

    • Praise and criticism…

      • “evaluative praise” is judgmental and discourages internal evaluation

      • “appreciative praise” is factual and descriptive, and leaves the child to do the evaluating

    • Respect in the forms of dignity and courtesy


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Self-Esteem in Adolescence(Ages 13 through 19)

  • Erikson:

    • Develop a sense of self and personal identity.

    • Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself

    • Failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self

  • Freud:

    • Interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage.

    • If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm, and caring.


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Self-Esteem in Young Adulthood(Ages 20 through 24)

  • Erikson:

    • Form intimate, loving relationships with other people.

    • Success leads to strong relationships

    • Failure results in loneliness and isolation


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Self-Esteem in Middle Adulthood(Ages 25 through 65)

  • Erikson:

    • To create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people.

    • Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment

    • Failure results in shallow involvement in the world


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Self-Esteem into Maturity(Age 65 and beyond)

  • Erikson:

    • Look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment.

    • Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom

    • Failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair


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