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OBJECTIVES. After studying Chapter 40, the reader will be able to: Safely depower a hybrid electric vehicle. Safely perform high-voltage disconnects. Understand the unique service issues related to HEV high-voltage systems. Correctly use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

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objectives
OBJECTIVES

After studying Chapter 40, the reader will be able to:

  • Safely depower a hybrid electric vehicle.
  • Safely perform high-voltage disconnects.
  • Understand the unique service issues related to HEV high-voltage systems.
  • Correctly use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
  • Explain hazards while driving,moving, and hoisting a hybrid electric vehicle.
high voltage safety equipment rubber gloves
HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENTRubber Gloves
  • Before working on the high-voltage system of a hybrid electric vehicle, be sure that high-voltage (HV) linesman’s gloves are available.
  • Be sure that the gloves are rated at least 1,000 volts and class “0” by ANSI/ASTM.

FIGURE 40-1 Rubber linesman’s gloves protect the wearer from a shock hazard.

high voltage safety equipment rubber gloves1
HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENTRubber Gloves

FIGURE 40-2 Wearing leather gloves over the linesman’s gloves helps protect the rubber gloves from damage.

high voltage safety equipment rubber gloves2
HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENTRubber Gloves

FIGURE 40-3 Checking rubber linesman’s gloves for pinhole leaks.

high voltage safety equipment cat iii rated digital multimeter
HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENTCAT III–Rated Digital Multimeter
  • Hybrid electric vehicles are equipped with electrical systems whose voltages can exceed 600 volts DC.
  • A CAT III–certified digital multimeter (DMM) is required for making measurements on these high-voltage systems.
high voltage safety equipment cat iii rated digital multimeter1
HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENTCAT III–Rated Digital Multimeter

FIGURE 40-4 Be sure to only use a CAT III–meter when taking electrical voltage measurements on a hybrid vehicle.

high voltage safety equipment cat iii rated digital multimeter2
HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENTCAT III–Rated Digital Multimeter

FIGURE 40-5 The meter leads should also be CAT III rated when checking voltages on a hybrid electric vehicle.

high voltage safety equipment eye protection
HIGH-VOLTAGE SAFETY EQUIPMENTEye Protection
  • Eye protection should be worn when testing for high voltage, which is considered by many experts to be anything over 60 volts.
first responder procedures identifying a hybrid vehicle
FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURESIdentifying a Hybrid Vehicle
  • To confirm whether a vehicle is a hybrid, look for the word “HYBRID” on the rear of the vehicle.

FIGURE 40-6 This Honda Accord hybrid is identified by the emblem on the rear deck lid.

first responder procedures identifying a hybrid vehicle1
FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURESIdentifying a Hybrid Vehicle
  • Power Source.
  • 12-Volt Battery.
  • Fuse Box.
  • High-Voltage Battery Module.
  • High-Voltage Cables.
  • Airbags and Tensioners
    • Keep out of the path of an undeployed front airbag, and do not cut into the center of the steering wheel or dashboard where the front airbags are stored.
    • Do not cut into the rear (C) pillar where the side curtain inflator is stored.
first responder procedures identifying a hybrid vehicle2
FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURESIdentifying a Hybrid Vehicle

FIGURE 40-7 A hybrid electric vehicle can often be identified by looking for orange-colored cables under the hood, as well as other markings on the engine cover.

first responder procedures identifying a hybrid vehicle3
FIRST RESPONDER PROCEDURESIdentifying a Hybrid Vehicle

FIGURE 40-8 A Toyota Highlander hybrid battery pack with the cover removed.

electric shock potential
ELECTRIC SHOCK POTENTIAL
  • Unprotected contact with any electrically charged (“hot” or “live”) high-voltage component can cause serious injury or death.
  • However, receiving an electric shock from a hybrid vehicle is highly unlikely because of the following:
    • Contact with the battery module or other components inside the battery box can occur only if the box is damaged and the contents are exposed, or the box is opened without following proper precautions.
    • Contact with the electric motor can occur only after one or more components are removed.
    • The high-voltage cables can be easily identified by their distinctive orange color, and contact with them can be avoided.
    • The system main relays (SMRs) disconnect power from the cables the moment the ignition is turned off.
vehicle fire
VEHICLE FIRE
  • There are no unusual hazards if a hybrid electric vehicle is involved in a fire.
  • It should be noted, however, that extremely high temperatures (320°F–356°F [160°C–180°C]) can cause undeployed airbags to deploy.
submerged or partially submerged vehicle
SUBMERGED OR PARTIALLY SUBMERGED VEHICLE
  • Pull the vehicle out of the water, then use one of the procedures described next for preventing electric current from flowing through the high-voltage cables.
preventing current flow through high voltage cables
PREVENTING CURRENT FLOW THROUGH HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLES
  • Before attempting to rescue occupants or move a damaged hybrid vehicle, the potential for current to flow from the electric motor or the battery module through the high-voltage cables needs to be removed.
  • There are two recommended methods for preventing high-voltage shock hazard.
    • Method One
    • Method Two
preventing current flow through high voltage cables1
PREVENTING CURRENT FLOW THROUGH HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLES

FIGURE 40-9 The high-voltage disconnect (service) plug is located on the left side of the rear seat in a Toyota Highlander hybrid vehicle.

silence is not golden
SILENCE IS NOT GOLDEN

FIGURE 40-10 The Ford Escape Hybrid instrument panel showing the vehicle in Park and the tachometer on “EV” instead of 0 RPM. This means that the gasoline engine could start at any time depending on the state of charge of the high-voltage batteries and other factors.

emergency response
EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  • On arrival, emergency responders should follow their standard operating procedures for vehicle incidents.
  • Extrication
  • Offensive Fire Attack
  • Defensive Fire Attack
  • Spills
  • Submersion
collision and repair industry issues jump starting
COLLISION AND REPAIR INDUSTRY ISSUESJump-Starting
  • The 12-volt auxiliary battery may be jump-started if the vehicle does not start.
  • The 12-volt auxiliary battery is often located under the hood but can also be located in the cargo area of some HEVs.
  • Using a jump box or jumper cable from another vehicle, make the connections to the positive and negative battery terminals.

FIGURE 40-11 Jump-starting a 2001–2003 Toyota Prius using a 12-volt supply to boost the 12-volt auxiliary battery in the trunk.

collision and repair industry issues jump starting1
COLLISION AND REPAIR INDUSTRY ISSUESJump-Starting

FIGURE 40-12 The underhood 12-volt jump-start terminal on this 2004+ Toyota Prius has a red plastic cover with a “”sign. The positive booster cable clamp will attach directly to the vertical metal bracket.

moving and towing a hybrid
MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID
  • If a disabled vehicle needs to be moved a short distance (to the side of the road, for example) and the vehicle can still roll on the ground, the easiest way is to shift the transmission into neutral and manually push the vehicle.
  • Moving the Hybrid Vehicle in the Shop
  • Removing the High-Voltage Batteries
  • Storing the High-Voltage Batteries
  • Hoisting a Hybrid Vehicle
  • Paint Ovens
  • HV Battery Disposal
moving and towing a hybrid1
MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID

FIGURE 40-13 Use of a warning cover over the steering wheel helps others realize that work is being performed on the high-voltage system and that no one is to attempt to start or move the vehicle.

moving and towing a hybrid2
MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID

FIGURE 40-14 A lock box is a safe location to keep the ignition keys of a hybrid electric vehicle while it is being serviced. Notice that this lock box has two separate locks so it would require two people to open, helping to ensure that no harm is done by accidentally attempting to start a HEV.

moving and towing a hybrid3
MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID

FIGURE 40-15 Insulated tools, such as this socket set, would provide an additional margin of safety to the service technician when working around high-voltage components and systems.

moving and towing a hybrid4
MOVING AND TOWING A HYBRID

FIGURE 40-16 The high-voltage wiring on this Honda hybrid is colored orange for easy identification.

insulation tester
INSULATION TESTER
  • To perform an insulation test, push the test button on the tester.
  • It will perform the following:
    • The tester applies a test voltage on the meter leads.
    • The tester then measures the voltage and the current.
    • The tester then calculates the resistance and displays the reading.
summary
SUMMARY
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) for work on hybrid electric vehicles includes the wearing of high-voltage rubber gloves rated at 1,000 volts or more worn with leather protective gloves to help protect the rubber gloves.
  • A digital meter and meter leads that meet CAT III standards should be used when working around the highvoltage section of a hybrid electric vehicle.
  • Safety glasses and a face shield should be worn whenever working around the high-voltage circuits of a hybrid electric vehicle.
summary1
SUMMARY
  • The high-voltage system can be shut off by disconnecting the high-voltage circuits and being sure the ignition is off. Disconnecting the 12-volt battery is additional security that the high-voltage circuits are depowered.
  • For most situations, first responder actions should be the same as if the vehicle were conventional.
  • When servicing a hybrid electric vehicle, always observe recommended safety procedures.
review questions
REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • What are the recommended items that should be used when working with the high-voltage circuits of a hybrid electric vehicle?
  • How can a hybrid electric vehicle be identified?
  • What actions are needed to disable the high-voltage (HV) circuit?
  • What precautions should first responders take to protect themselves and accident victims in the event of a collision or accident with a hybrid electric vehicle?
  • What are the precautions that service technicians should adhere to when servicing hybrid electric vehicles?
chapter quiz
CHAPTER QUIZ
  • Rubber gloves should be worn whenever working on or near the high-voltage circuits or components of a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the rubber gloves should be rated at 1,000 volts or higher. Technician B says that leather gloves should be worn over the high-voltage rubber gloves. Which technician is correct?
    • Technician A only
    • Technician B only
    • Both Technicians A and B
    • Neither Technician A nor B
chapter quiz1
CHAPTER QUIZ
  • Rubber gloves should be worn whenever working on or near the high-voltage circuits or components of a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the rubber gloves should be rated at 1,000 volts or higher. Technician B says that leather gloves should be worn over the high-voltage rubber gloves. Which technician is correct?
    • Technician A only
    • Technician B only
    • Both Technicians A and B
    • Neither Technician A nor B
chapter quiz2
CHAPTER QUIZ

2. A CAT III–certified DMM should be used whenever measuring high-voltage circuits or components. The CAT III rating relates to _____.

  • High voltage
  • High energy
  • High electrical resistance
  • Both a and b
chapter quiz3
CHAPTER QUIZ

2. A CAT III–certified DMM should be used whenever measuring high-voltage circuits or components. The CAT III rating relates to _____.

  • High voltage
  • High energy
  • High electrical resistance
  • Both a and b
chapter quiz4
CHAPTER QUIZ

3. All of the following will shut off the high voltage to components and circuits, except _____.

  • Opening the driver’s door
  • Turning the ignition off
  • Disconnecting the 12-volt auxiliary battery
  • Removing the main fuse, relay, or HV plug
chapter quiz5
CHAPTER QUIZ

3. All of the following will shut off the high voltage to components and circuits, except _____.

  • Opening the driver’s door
  • Turning the ignition off
  • Disconnecting the 12-volt auxiliary battery
  • Removing the main fuse, relay, or HV plug
chapter quiz6
CHAPTER QUIZ

4. If the engine is not running, Technician A says that the highvoltage circuits are depowered. Technician B says that all high-voltage wiring is orange in color. Which technician is correct?

  • Technician A only
  • Technician B only
  • Both Technicians A and B
  • Neither Technician A nor B
chapter quiz7
CHAPTER QUIZ

4. If the engine is not running, Technician A says that the highvoltage circuits are depowered. Technician B says that all high-voltage wiring is orange in color. Which technician is correct?

  • Technician A only
  • Technician B only
  • Both Technicians A and B
  • Neither Technician A nor B
chapter quiz8
CHAPTER QUIZ

5. Which statement is false about high-voltage wiring?

  • Connects the battery pack to the electric controller
  • Connects the controller to the motor/generator
  • Is electrically grounded to the frame (body) of the vehicle
  • Is controlled by a relay that opens if the ignition is off
chapter quiz9
CHAPTER QUIZ

5. Which statement is false about high-voltage wiring?

  • Connects the battery pack to the electric controller
  • Connects the controller to the motor/generator
  • Is electrically grounded to the frame (body) of the vehicle
  • Is controlled by a relay that opens if the ignition is off
chapter quiz10
CHAPTER QUIZ

6. The electrolyte from a NiMH battery pack can be neutralized in the remote chance that it leaks by using _____.

  • Water
  • Baking soda
  • Vinegar
  • Baking powder
chapter quiz11
CHAPTER QUIZ

6. The electrolyte from a NiMH battery pack can be neutralized in the remote chance that it leaks by using _____.

  • Water
  • Baking soda
  • Vinegar
  • Baking powder
chapter quiz12
CHAPTER QUIZ

7. Two technicians are discussing jump-starting a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the high-voltage (HV) batteries can be jumped on some HEV models. Technician B says that the 12-volt auxiliary battery can be jumped using a conventional jump box or jumper cable. Which technician is correct?

  • Technician A only
  • Technician B only
  • Both Technicians A and B
  • Neither Technician A nor B
chapter quiz13
CHAPTER QUIZ

7. Two technicians are discussing jump-starting a hybrid electric vehicle. Technician A says that the high-voltage (HV) batteries can be jumped on some HEV models. Technician B says that the 12-volt auxiliary battery can be jumped using a conventional jump box or jumper cable. Which technician is correct?

  • Technician A only
  • Technician B only
  • Both Technicians A and B
  • Neither Technician A nor B
chapter quiz14
CHAPTER QUIZ

8. What can occur if a hybrid electric vehicle is pushed in the shop?

  • The HV battery pack can be damaged.
  • The tires will be locked unless the ignition is on.
  • Damage to the electronic controller can occur.
  • High voltage will be generated by the motor/generator.
chapter quiz15
CHAPTER QUIZ

8. What can occur if a hybrid electric vehicle is pushed in the shop?

  • The HV battery pack can be damaged.
  • The tires will be locked unless the ignition is on.
  • Damage to the electronic controller can occur.
  • High voltage will be generated by the motor/generator.
chapter quiz16
CHAPTER QUIZ

9. Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries can be damaged if exposed to temperatures higher than about _____.

  • 150°F (66°C)
  • 175°F (79°C)
  • 200°F (93°C)
  • 225°F (107°C)
chapter quiz17
CHAPTER QUIZ

9. Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries can be damaged if exposed to temperatures higher than about _____.

  • 150°F (66°C)
  • 175°F (79°C)
  • 200°F (93°C)
  • 225°F (107°C)
chapter quiz18
CHAPTER QUIZ

10. How should nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries be disposed of?

  • In regular trash
  • Call an 800 number shown under the hood of the vehicle for information
  • Submerged in water and then disposed of in regular trash
  • Burned at an EPA-certified plant
chapter quiz19
CHAPTER QUIZ

10. How should nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries be disposed of?

  • In regular trash
  • Call an 800 number shown under the hood of the vehicle for information
  • Submerged in water and then disposed of in regular trash
  • Burned at an EPA-certified plant
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