Other biting flies
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Other Biting Flies. Horse-flies, Tsetse-flies, House-flies and Stable-flies. Family: Tabanidae (Horse-flies and Deer-flies). Tabanus atratus Tabanus nigrovittatus Chrysops atlanticus Large biting flies (65 mm wing) Over 4300 species Worldwide distribution. Medium to large (6-30 mm)

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Other Biting Flies

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Other biting flies

Other Biting Flies

Horse-flies, Tsetse-flies, House-flies and Stable-flies


Family tabanidae horse flies and deer flies

Family: Tabanidae(Horse-flies and Deer-flies)

  • Tabanus atratus

  • Tabanus nigrovittatus

  • Chrysops atlanticus

  • Large biting flies (65 mm wing)

  • Over 4300 species

  • Worldwide distribution.

  • Medium to large (6-30 mm)

  • Antennae are small but stout

  • Mouthparts adapted for biting, hang downwards from head.


Life history

Life History

  • Tend to lay eggs near larvarial substrate.

  • Some larvae are predacious

  • Life cycle

    • Eggs  Larvae  Pupae  Adult

    • Most inhabit woods and forest


Feeding habits

Feeding Habits

  • Bite is painful

  • Most feed during the daytime, locate host by site and CO2.

  • Several small meals often taken from the same or different host.

  • Interrupted feeding behavior increases their likelihood of being mechanical vectors of disease.

  • Prefer dark objects, will bite through colored clothing.


Biological transmission

Biological Transmission

  • Loiasis (loa loa)

  • Chrysops species are the biological vectors.

    • Microfilaria picked up in blood during day.

    • Develop in thoracic fat bodies of the deer fly.

    • Worms leave the proboscis when deer fly feeds.

  • Human strain of Loiasis

  • Monkey strain of Loiasis


Biological transmission1

Biological Transmission

  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

  • Tularaemia – from rabbits, horses and other rodents to humans.

  • Tabanids can transmit viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and filarial worms to livestock

  • Also big pest nuisance.

  • Some people develop allergic reaction.

  • Control: Insect repellents.


Family glossinidae tsetse flies

Family: Glossinidae(Tsetse-flies)

  • Restricted to sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Vector:

  • Parasite:

  • Reservoir:


Life history1

Life History

  • Egg  Larvae  Pupae  Adult

    • Egg completes maturation in ovary

    • Larvae goes through 3 instars in the female

    • Larviposition in shaded areas.

    • Larvae bury itself in soil and pupates.

    • Pupal stage is long.

  • Adults spend day resting on vegitation or dark humid sites. (Twigs, branches, tree trunks)


Feeding habits1

Feeding Habits

  • Both male and females blood feed on humans, wild and domesticated animals, as well as reptiles and amphibians.

  • Feed in dry-hot weather, cooler weather they feed every 10 days.

  • Vision is important in host location.

  • Females must take several bloodmeals to feed larvae.

  • Many species rarely feed on people.


Medical importance

Medical Importance

  • “African Sleeping Sickness”

  • 400,000 cases a year with 55,000 deaths.

    Control

    Most control aimed at adults.

    - Clearing away vegetation (resting sites)

    - Kill of game animals (reservoir), no longer acceptable!

    - Insecticides

    - Targets and traps

    - Genetic

    Personal protection.


The higher diptera

“The Higher Diptera”

  • Suborder Cyclorrhapha:

    • Larvae are maggots or grubs (no distinct head capsule)

    • Pupa is encased in final larval stage called puparium

  • Families:

    • Muscidae

    • Calliphoridae

    • Sarcophagidae

    • Cuterebridae

    • Oestridae


The higher diptera1

“The Higher Diptera”

  • Importance:

    • (1) Annoyance

    • (2) Disease Transmission

    • (3) Myiasis


1 annoyance

(1) Annoyance

  • Synanthropic

  • Various species:

    • Musca domestica

    • Fannia canicularis

    • Musca stabulans

    • Stomoxys calcitrans

  • Several generations each year!


2 transmit pathogens

(2) Transmit Pathogens

  • Diseases transmitted mechanically.

  • Pathogens of bacillary dysentery:

    • Shigella and Salmonella

    • Vomit on food when feeding

  • Look at a fly close up:

    • Lots of hairs

    • Sticky pads


Family muscidae house flies and stable flies

Family: Muscidae(House-flies and Stable-flies)

  • Musca domestica

  • Mechanical transmission of pathogens, accidental myiasis.

  • Stomoxys calcitrans

  • biting pest (human and veterinary pest)


House flies

House-Flies

  • Non-biting mouthparts


House fly

House Fly

  • Can transmit a large number of diseases to humans.

  • Over 100 different pathogens have been recorded from house flies, 65 of them are transmitted!

  • Some diseases they can transmit:

    • Viruses: Polio, coxsackie, and infectious hepatitis

    • Rickettsiae: Q fever

    • Bacteria: anthrax, cholera, shigella and salmonella species, E. coli, staph. Aureus, trachoma, spirochaetes of yaws.

    • Protozoans: Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia.

    • Helminths: various eggs; Ascaris, tapes, Trichuris

    • Dermatobia hominis: a myiasis-producing fly.


Life cycle

Life Cycle

  • Egg  Larvae  Pupa  Adult.

  • This life cycle is typical of other muscid and calliphorid flies.

  • Seasonal abundance of house flies


House fly control

House Fly Control

  • Physical and Mechanical Control

    • Screening windows, openings, air vents, etc.

    • Air barriers (doorways)

    • Sticky tapes (fly-papers)

      (2) Environmental Sanitation

      -Reduce breeding places (garbage and refuse removal)

      (3) Insecticide Control

      -Larvicides

      -Spraying against adults

      -Residual spraying

      -Insecticidal cords

      -Toxic baits


Stable flies

Stable-Flies

  • Both male and females take blood meals from wild and domestic animals.

  • Not known to transmit any diseases to humans – annoyance to animals and man.

  • Get rid of manure, spray breeding places with insecticides, fly strips.

Biting mouthparts


Other biting flies

Important Fly Pests of Humans and Animals in North America


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