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Other Biting Flies. Horse-flies, Tsetse-flies, House-flies and Stable-flies. Family: Tabanidae (Horse-flies and Deer-flies). Tabanus atratus Tabanus nigrovittatus Chrysops atlanticus Large biting flies (65 mm wing) Over 4300 species Worldwide distribution. Medium to large (6-30 mm)

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other biting flies

Other Biting Flies

Horse-flies, Tsetse-flies, House-flies and Stable-flies

family tabanidae horse flies and deer flies
Family: Tabanidae(Horse-flies and Deer-flies)
  • Tabanus atratus
  • Tabanus nigrovittatus
  • Chrysops atlanticus
  • Large biting flies (65 mm wing)
  • Over 4300 species
  • Worldwide distribution.
  • Medium to large (6-30 mm)
  • Antennae are small but stout
  • Mouthparts adapted for biting, hang downwards from head.
life history
Life History
  • Tend to lay eggs near larvarial substrate.
  • Some larvae are predacious
  • Life cycle
    • Eggs  Larvae  Pupae  Adult
    • Most inhabit woods and forest
feeding habits
Feeding Habits
  • Bite is painful
  • Most feed during the daytime, locate host by site and CO2.
  • Several small meals often taken from the same or different host.
  • Interrupted feeding behavior increases their likelihood of being mechanical vectors of disease.
  • Prefer dark objects, will bite through colored clothing.
biological transmission
Biological Transmission
  • Loiasis (loa loa)
  • Chrysops species are the biological vectors.
    • Microfilaria picked up in blood during day.
    • Develop in thoracic fat bodies of the deer fly.
    • Worms leave the proboscis when deer fly feeds.
  • Human strain of Loiasis
  • Monkey strain of Loiasis
biological transmission1
Biological Transmission
  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
  • Tularaemia – from rabbits, horses and other rodents to humans.
  • Tabanids can transmit viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and filarial worms to livestock
  • Also big pest nuisance.
  • Some people develop allergic reaction.
  • Control: Insect repellents.
family glossinidae tsetse flies
Family: Glossinidae(Tsetse-flies)
  • Restricted to sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Vector:
  • Parasite:
  • Reservoir:
life history1
Life History
  • Egg  Larvae  Pupae  Adult
    • Egg completes maturation in ovary
    • Larvae goes through 3 instars in the female
    • Larviposition in shaded areas.
    • Larvae bury itself in soil and pupates.
    • Pupal stage is long.
  • Adults spend day resting on vegitation or dark humid sites. (Twigs, branches, tree trunks)
feeding habits1
Feeding Habits
  • Both male and females blood feed on humans, wild and domesticated animals, as well as reptiles and amphibians.
  • Feed in dry-hot weather, cooler weather they feed every 10 days.
  • Vision is important in host location.
  • Females must take several bloodmeals to feed larvae.
  • Many species rarely feed on people.
medical importance
Medical Importance
  • “African Sleeping Sickness”
  • 400,000 cases a year with 55,000 deaths.

Control

Most control aimed at adults.

- Clearing away vegetation (resting sites)

- Kill of game animals (reservoir), no longer acceptable!

- Insecticides

- Targets and traps

- Genetic

Personal protection.

the higher diptera
“The Higher Diptera”
  • Suborder Cyclorrhapha:
    • Larvae are maggots or grubs (no distinct head capsule)
    • Pupa is encased in final larval stage called puparium
  • Families:
    • Muscidae
    • Calliphoridae
    • Sarcophagidae
    • Cuterebridae
    • Oestridae
the higher diptera1
“The Higher Diptera”
  • Importance:
    • (1) Annoyance
    • (2) Disease Transmission
    • (3) Myiasis
1 annoyance
(1) Annoyance
  • Synanthropic
  • Various species:
    • Musca domestica
    • Fannia canicularis
    • Musca stabulans
    • Stomoxys calcitrans
  • Several generations each year!
2 transmit pathogens
(2) Transmit Pathogens
  • Diseases transmitted mechanically.
  • Pathogens of bacillary dysentery:
    • Shigella and Salmonella
    • Vomit on food when feeding
  • Look at a fly close up:
    • Lots of hairs
    • Sticky pads
family muscidae house flies and stable flies
Family: Muscidae(House-flies and Stable-flies)
  • Musca domestica
  • Mechanical transmission of pathogens, accidental myiasis.
  • Stomoxys calcitrans
  • biting pest (human and veterinary pest)
house flies
House-Flies
  • Non-biting mouthparts
house fly
House Fly
  • Can transmit a large number of diseases to humans.
  • Over 100 different pathogens have been recorded from house flies, 65 of them are transmitted!
  • Some diseases they can transmit:
    • Viruses: Polio, coxsackie, and infectious hepatitis
    • Rickettsiae: Q fever
    • Bacteria: anthrax, cholera, shigella and salmonella species, E. coli, staph. Aureus, trachoma, spirochaetes of yaws.
    • Protozoans: Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia.
    • Helminths: various eggs; Ascaris, tapes, Trichuris
    • Dermatobia hominis: a myiasis-producing fly.
life cycle
Life Cycle
  • Egg  Larvae  Pupa  Adult.
  • This life cycle is typical of other muscid and calliphorid flies.
  • Seasonal abundance of house flies
house fly control
House Fly Control
  • Physical and Mechanical Control
    • Screening windows, openings, air vents, etc.
    • Air barriers (doorways)
    • Sticky tapes (fly-papers)

(2) Environmental Sanitation

- Reduce breeding places (garbage and refuse removal)

(3) Insecticide Control

- Larvicides

- Spraying against adults

- Residual spraying

- Insecticidal cords

- Toxic baits

stable flies
Stable-Flies
  • Both male and females take blood meals from wild and domestic animals.
  • Not known to transmit any diseases to humans – annoyance to animals and man.
  • Get rid of manure, spray breeding places with insecticides, fly strips.

Biting mouthparts

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