Nutritional diseases in livestock
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CLF 3156. Nutritional Diseases in Livestock. Kirsti Whitmyre , AgEd 410 Spring 2013. Objectives. Students will know… Common nutritional diseases Causes and symptoms Treatment and prevention.

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Nutritional diseases in livestock

CLF 3156

Nutritional Diseasesin Livestock

KirstiWhitmyre,

AgEd 410

Spring 2013


Objectives

Objectives

Students will know…

  • Common nutritional diseases

  • Causes and symptoms

  • Treatment and prevention

http://www2.dupont.com/animal-nutrition-disease-prevention/en-us/sites/default/files/AnimalNutrition%20PCG%20Hero2_1100x290.jpg


Importance of animal nutrition

Importance of Animal Nutrition

  • A consistent feed regime is critical to prevent nutritional diseases

  • Diseased stock can put economic success of enterprise in danger

  • Deficiencies and toxicities can damage livestock before they are detected

  • Must monitor feeds and resources closely


Main causes of nutritional diseases

Main Causes of Nutritional Diseases

  • Too little feed

  • Deficiency in one or more nutrients

  • Forced production

  • Feed produced on leached or depleted soils

  • Increase in confinement of animals


Check for understanding

Check For Understanding

What are 2 of the 3 main categories of nutritional disease?


Vitamin deficiency diseases

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

  • Osteomalacia (Rickets)

    Causes:

  • Inadequate vitamin D

  • Incorrect ratio of calcium: phosphorus

    Symptoms:

  • Lack of appetite, weight loss

  • Enlarged or stiff joints, bowed legs


Vitamin deficiency diseases1

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

  • Osteomalacia (Rickets)

    Treatment:

  • Limited once animal shows symptoms

  • Mineral/Vitamin supplements may help

    Prevention:

  • Balanced feed rations, properly fertilized crops

  • Animals have access to direct sunlight


Vitamin deficiency diseases2

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

  • Stiff-Lamb Disease (White Muscle Disease)

    Causes:

  • Deficiency or imbalance of vitamin E or selenium

    Symptoms:

  • Humped or "roached" back

  • Stiff, stilted way of moving

  • Inhalation pneumonia in lambs


Vitamin deficiency diseases3

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

  • Stiff-Lamb Disease (White Muscle Disease)

    Treatment:

  • Vitamin E/selenium injections if caught early

  • Selenium supplements

    Prevention:

  • Vitamin E/selenium injections at docking time

  • Vitamin E/selenium injections at 2-4 weeks of age


Vitamin deficiency diseases4

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

  • Night Blindness (Xerophthalmia)

    Causes:

  • Vitamin A intake is too low

    Symptoms:

  • Faulty night vision

  • Rough hair coat

  • Severe scours

  • Stunted growth


Vitamin deficiency diseases5

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

  • Night Blindness (Xerophthalmia)

    Treatment:

  • Add vitamin A to diet or give vitamin A injections

    Prevention:

  • Provide good sources of vitamin A

  • Green pasture, yellow corn, fresh cured alfalfa


Mineral deficiency diseases

Mineral Deficiency Diseases

  • Milk Fever

    Causes:

  • Low blood calcium concentration

    Symptoms:

  • Loss of appetite, constipation soon after calving

  • Nervousness, loss of consciousness

  • Head turned/twisted toward shoulder

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/14437/Pictures%20Library/Milk%20fever%20-%20حمى%20اللبن.bmp


Mineral deficiency diseases1

Mineral Deficiency Diseases

  • Milk Fever

    Treatment:

  • Administering calcium salts intravenously

    Prevention:

  • Diet with proper phosphorus: calcium (ratio)

  • Lower dietary calcium 2 weeks before calving

  • High Vitamin D ration 5 days before calving

http://cnx.org/content/m18765/1.1/graphics1.jpg


Mineral deficiency diseases2

Mineral Deficiency Diseases

Milk Fever Video

Click HERE if video does not play


Mineral deficiency diseases3

Mineral Deficiency Diseases

  • Anemia

    Causes:

  • Iron or copper deficiency, parasites

    Symptoms:

  • Loss of appetite, emaciation in suckling young

  • Rough hair coat, pale membranes

  • Swelling in head and shoulders


Mineral deficiency diseases4

Mineral Deficiency Diseases

  • Anemia

    Treatment:

  • Iron injections

    Prevention:

  • Providing balanced feeds to young

  • Iron Dextran solution injection (piglets)


Mineral deficiency diseases5

Mineral Deficiency Diseases

  • Goiter

    Causes:

  • Failure to obtain enough iodine from thyroid gland

    Symptoms:

  • Thyroid gland swells, “big neck”

  • Reproductive failures

  • Hairless piglets, weak foals


Mineral deficiency diseases6

Mineral Deficiency Diseases

  • Goiter

    Treatment:

  • Not effective once symptoms appear

    Prevention:

  • Feeding iodized salts

  • Rare disease

http://farm1.static.flickr.com/217/477506325_201d03135e.jpg


Toxicity diseases

Toxicity Diseases

  • Selenium Poisoning

    Causes:

  • Plants grown on soil with high selenium

    Symptoms:

  • Loss of tail hair (cattle)

  • Loss of body hair (swine)

  • Loss of mane & tail, hooves slough off (horses)


Toxicity diseases1

Toxicity Diseases

  • Selenium Poisoning

    Treatment:

  • Not practical in advanced cases

    Prevention:

  • Pasture rotation


Toxicity diseases2

Toxicity Diseases

  • Urinary Calculi

    Causes:

  • High intake of potassium

  • High calcium: low phosphorus (ratio)

  • High Silica content

    Symptoms:

  • Frequent attempts to urinate, pain, renal colic

  • Usually seen only in males

http://www.danekeclublambs.com/files/urinary_calculi_1.jpg


Toxicity diseases3

Toxicity Diseases

  • Urinary Calculi

    Treatment:

  • Limited success, for valuable animals only

  • Ammonium chloride and salt added to diet, remove alfalfa

  • Surgical removal– may leave males sterile

    Prevention:

  • Avoid high phosphorus or high calcium diets

  • Delayed castration

http://img.tfd.com/vet/thumbs/gr403.jpg


Toxicity diseases4

Toxicity Diseases

  • Nitrate Poisoning

    Causes:

  • Feed high in nitrates

    • Sudan grass, oat hay, corn stalks, barley forage

    • Stressed plants, surface runoff

      Symptoms:

  • Accelerated pulse and respiration

  • Diarrhea, frequent urination, blue mucous membranes

http://beefmagazine.com/site-files/beefmagazine.com/files/imagecache/medium_img/uploads/2012/11/cornstalks.jpg


Toxicity diseases5

Toxicity Diseases

  • Nitrate Poisoning

    Treatments:

  • Intravenous solution of methylene blue or sodium sulfate

    Prevention:

  • Feeding high levels of grains and molasses

  • Feeding ensiled forages high in nitrates (during ensiling nitrates turn to gas)

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2302/2289588918_a5210ff1bc.jpg


Check for understanding1

Check for Understanding

What are 3 of the 5 main causes of nutritional diseases?


Related careers

Related Careers

  • Animal Nutrition is important in the following careers:

    • Animal dietician, animal nutritionist

    • Veterinarian, veterinary technician

    • Livestock producer

http://work.chron.com/animal-nutrition-careers-2126.html


Related sae projects

Related SAE Projects

  • Raising or Breeding:

    • Beef

    • Dairy

    • Horses

    • Swine

    • Sheep

    • Goats

http://www2.dupont.com/animal-nutrition-disease-prevention/en-us/sites/default/files/AnimalNutrition%20PCG%20Hero2_1100x290.jpg


Check for understanding2

Check for Understanding

Why is understanding how to properly feed an animal important in preventing nutritional diseases in livestock?


References

References

  • All images with no citation beneath them are from the Animal Science Image Gallery: http://anscigallery.nal.usda.gov/index.php

  • CLF3156: http://calaged.csuchico.edu/resourcefiles/curriculum/advcluster/3156.txt


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