By: Kenya, Lourdes, & Eduardo. Safe methods of industrial waste disposal. What is Industrial waste? Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity, such as that of factories, mills and mines. What are the different types of industrial waste?.
Waste comes in many different forms such as, but not limited to.-Agricultural waste-Animal by-products-Biodegradable waste-Biomedical waste-Bulky waste-Business waste-Chemical waste-Clinical waste
Most of air pollutants include CO, SO2, etc. These chemicals increase the risks of suffering from cancer, lower respiratory systems and immunity. Worse still, they can cause ozone depletion and global warming.
It is very important to figure out the effects of industrial waste on environment. There are consequences. In the first place, industrial waste causes air pollution. Solid and gaseous waste can pollute the air. Using fossil fuels such as gas, coal and oil to create electricity for power industries and manufacturing operations can produce toxic chemicals that are generated to the air through chimneys and exhaust pipes. Most of air pollutants include CO, SO2, etc. These chemicals increase the risks of suffering from cancer, lower respiratory systems and immunity. Worse still, they can cause ozone depletion and global warming.
solid waste is everyday household garbage, which is collected by municipalities and disposed of in a landfill or in a incinerator. It can also be the solid form of gases or liquid waste.
Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills and mines.
chemical compounds produced by industry which, if they are ingested or breathed in by humans, can cause psychological damage. The disposal of toxic wastes is a major environmental problem in the United States.
Regulated medical waste (RMW), also known as ‘biohazardous’ waste or 'infectious medical’ waste, is the portion of the waste stream that may be contaminated by blood, body fluids or other potentially infectious materials, thus posing a significant risk of transmitting infection.
Industrial waste is a potential feast for bacteria. The microscopic bacteria decompose industrial waste, transforming it from environmental pollution to products that can be recycled by man or nature.
Incineration is appropriate for some hazardous waste because the high temperatures can destroy some synthetic compounds. Other methods include deep burial and deep-well injection. Chemical treatments such as catalysis alter the chemical structure of hazardous waste, rendering it harmless.
Manufacturing, mining, construction and metallurgical industries generate waste material that often cannot be consumed or recycled. Because many of these industry operations take place on a massive scale, they often produce massive amounts of these waste byproducts. Wastes such as slag, scrap material, rock tailings, useless chemicals, oils and acids are disposed of in many different ways:
Dumping in landfills
Dumping in oceans
Storage in underground caverns
Some industrial processes create byproducts that can be recycled, such as aluminum, glass, glycerin and gasoline, while other byproducts, such as methane gas, can be used in other industrial processes.
Many hazardous wastes can be recycled into new products. Examples might include lead-acid batteries or electronic circuit boards where the heavy metals these types of ashes go though the proper treatment, they could bind to other pollutants and convert them into easier-to- dispose solids, or they could be used as pavement filling. Such treatments reduce the level of threat of harmful chemicals, like fly and bottom ash while also recycling the safe product.
Hazardous wastes are any solid, liquid, or contained gaseous materials which are no longer used and, if not handled or disposed of properly, could damage or pollute the land, air, or water. They can also cause injury or death to exposed individuals.
ACUTELY HAZARDOUS WASTES — waste materials which are so dangerous in small amounts that they are regulated the same way as large amounts of other hazardous wastes.
USED OIL OR FUELS — can be considered hazardous if not properly handled.
UNUSABLE PESTICIDES, RINSATES & RESIDUES — materials classified as hazardous.
SPENT SOLVENTS — such as those used in parts washers, etc.
PAINTING SUPPLY WASTES — including spent thinners, flammable waste paints, and hardened paint containing lead, chromium, or barium.
SPENT WOOD PRESERVATIVES — such as residues or spilled materials containing pentachlorophenol, chromated copper arsenate(CCA), or creosote.
BATTERIES — spent lead-acid batteries not intended for recycling.
The definition of non hazardous waste is waste which is neither inert nor classed to as special and it does not fall within the hazardous waste classification. Insert waste is non-reactive and therefore not harmful to the environment.
Some unfavorable amounts of hazardous materials have the tendency to seep into the ground. These chemicals eventually entered natural hydrologic systems. Many landfills now require countermeasures against groundwater contamination, an example being installing a barrier along the foundation of the landfill to contain the hazardous substances that may remain in the disposed waste. Currently, hazardous wastes must often be stabilized and solidified in order to enter a landfill and many hazardous wastes undergo different treatments in order to stabilize and dispose of them.
The best way to dispose of hazardous substances is to isolate them from other waste and send them for recycling or disposal at special facilities. This waste is securely stored until it can be transported offshore for incineration or until suitable treatment options are available
Commercial waste recycling happens when commercial companies reuse their non-hazardous or hazardous waste and turn them into new products. They continue this process until there is nothing they can use.
since the beginning of the nuclear age, the concern over the disposal of nuclear waste has become one of the primary reasons for the stagnation of the development of nuclear power. Previously, there were only three options available for disposal:
1) Shoot it into space and into the sun.
2) Store it in containers on the earth's surface.
3) Dig a hole and bury it.
The first solution, shooting it into space, is ridiculously expensive and dangerous. It takes at least 200 pounds of fuel to raise one pound of payload into the earth's orbit. Getting it to the sun would take much more. There are up to 42,000 tons of nuclear wastes in the U.S. at this time. The second solution, storing it in containers on the earth's surface, is what is currently being done. It is very risky due to the threat potential from terrorists, including bombing or crashing an aircraft into the storage pool (wet storage) or the drums (dry storage).
The third solution, digging a hole and burying it, is invalid for any storage for more than a relatively short time due to the lack of long-range data on volcanism, earthquakes, water tables, etc.
all commercial spent fuel is stored at the site where it was generated in either a concrete, steel lined pool or in an above-ground dry concrete and steel cask. Typically, spent fuel rods are cooled in a concrete, steel lined pool for between 3 and 10 years, at which time they are transferred to a dry concrete and steel cask. In total, the inventory of commercial spent fuel is close to 65,000 metric tons, or enough to cover one football field about 20 feet deep. Of course, interim storage has its limits; nearly all nuclear reactors will need to continually seek on-site expansion of storage facilities, and some may hit physical limits. The only solution for this problem is to expand which isn’t to economically great.
-hazardous waste is a waste that has the potential to cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness; or
pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
-Industrial waste is waste that results from or is incidental to operations of industry, manufacturing, mining, or agriculture. Industrial waste may be hazardous or nonhazardous.
The waste from industries are directly dumped into surrounding water bodies and open lands which causes various types of pollution. This is known as industrial pollution. In addition, numerous manufacturing plants pour off undiluted corrosives, poisons, and other noxious byproducts. The construction industry discharges slurries of gypsum, cement, abrasives, metals, and poisonous solvents. Another pervasive group of contaminants entering food chains is the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds, components of lubricants, plastic wrappers, and adhesives. In yet another instance of pollution, hot water discharged by factories and power plants causes so-called thermal pollution by increasing water temperatures. Such increases change the level of oxygen dissolved in a body of water, thereby disrupting the water's ecological balance, killing off some plant and animal species while encouraging the overgrowth of others.
Acidic water at mine sites often kills vegetation, and may cause
fish deaths in rivers. Apart from low pH, visual indicators of AMD at mine sites include the
• large areas where vegetation has died due to acidic runoff and shallow acidic
• surface water bodies on the mine sites often appear to have a milky blue-white cloudy
appearance due to the presence of flocs of aluminium hydroxide. If the water is extremely
acidic (< pH 3), it may appear to be crystal clear due to the precipitation of the flocs.
Of the chemicals used to process ores, cyanide may be the most problematic due to its
toxicity and the complexity of its chemical behaviour in groundwater. Cyanide degrades
rapidly into nontoxic chemical compounds when exposed to air and sunlight, but in
groundwater it may persist for long periods with little or no degradation. Cyanide (usually in
the form of potassium or sodium cyanide) is used to extract gold from its ore, but in the
subsurface it can react with minerals in soil and rock to form a wide range of metal cyanide
complexes, many of which are very toxic.
Abandoned pits and mine shafts are commonly used for water supply after mine closure.
Depending on the type of mining activity, water from these sources could pose a risk to
human health from high dissolved metal or cyanide concentrations.