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ACIDS & bases. 9 Sci – Term 4. What is an Acid?. Definition: An acid is a compound that contains hydrogen ions (H + ) H + Hydrogen Ion is essentially a proton Acid’s give protons (H + hydrogen ions). Characteristics of Acids. Acids are characterised by: Sour taste

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acids bases

ACIDS & bases

9 Sci – Term 4

what is an acid
What is an Acid?

Definition: An acid is a compound that contains hydrogen ions (H+)

  • H+Hydrogen Ion is essentially a proton
  • Acid’s give protons (H+ hydrogen ions)
characteristics of acids
Characteristics of Acids

Acids are characterised by:

  • Sour taste
  • Turns blue litmus paper red
  • Reacts with bases to form salts
  • Reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas

If chemicals have properties of an acid, they are said to be acidic.

what is a base
What is a Base?

Definition: A base is a compound that contains a Hydroxide Ion (OH-).

  • Bases readily receive protons (H+)
characteristics of bases
Characteristics of Bases

Bases are characterised by:

  • Bitter taste
  • Soapy feel – They react with natural oils on the skin to produce soap
  • Turn red litmus paper blue
  • React with acids to form salts

Bases which are soluble in water are called Alkali’s.

A basic solution is referred to as being alkaline.

what is litmus paper
What is Litmus paper?

Litmus is made from lichen (fungus and algae/bacteria). It is a natural indicator which changes colour in the presence of acids and bases.

examples of common acids
Examples of common Acids
  • Hydrochloric Acid (Gastric juice, household cleaners)
  • Lactic Acid (exercise build-up)
  • Sulfuric Acid (Drain cleaner, batteries)
  • Citric Acid (Fruits)
  • Carbonic Acid (Soft drinks)
  • Acetic Acid (Vinegar)
examples of common bases
Examples of common Bases
  • Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic soda, soaps, detergents)
  • Calcium Hydroxide (Limewater)
  • Ammonia (Fish pee)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate (Bicarb Soda)
  • Magnesium Hydroxide (Antacids, laxatives)
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