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ACIDS & bases. 9 Sci – Term 4. What is an Acid?. Definition: An acid is a compound that contains hydrogen ions (H + ) H + Hydrogen Ion is essentially a proton Acid’s give protons (H + hydrogen ions). Characteristics of Acids. Acids are characterised by: Sour taste

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ACIDS & bases

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Acids bases

ACIDS & bases

9 Sci – Term 4

What is an acid

What is an Acid?

Definition: An acid is a compound that contains hydrogen ions (H+)

  • H+Hydrogen Ion is essentially a proton

  • Acid’s give protons (H+ hydrogen ions)

Characteristics of acids

Characteristics of Acids

Acids are characterised by:

  • Sour taste

  • Turns blue litmus paper red

  • Reacts with bases to form salts

  • Reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas

    If chemicals have properties of an acid, they are said to be acidic.

What is a base

What is a Base?

Definition: A base is a compound that contains a Hydroxide Ion (OH-).

  • Bases readily receive protons (H+)

Characteristics of bases

Characteristics of Bases

Bases are characterised by:

  • Bitter taste

  • Soapy feel – They react with natural oils on the skin to produce soap

  • Turn red litmus paper blue

  • React with acids to form salts

    Bases which are soluble in water are called Alkali’s.

    A basic solution is referred to as being alkaline.

What is litmus paper

What is Litmus paper?

Litmus is made from lichen (fungus and algae/bacteria). It is a natural indicator which changes colour in the presence of acids and bases.

Testing acids and bases


Examples of common acids

Examples of common Acids

  • Hydrochloric Acid (Gastric juice, household cleaners)

  • Lactic Acid (exercise build-up)

  • Sulfuric Acid (Drain cleaner, batteries)

  • Citric Acid (Fruits)

  • Carbonic Acid (Soft drinks)

  • Acetic Acid (Vinegar)

Examples of common bases

Examples of common Bases

  • Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic soda, soaps, detergents)

  • Calcium Hydroxide (Limewater)

  • Ammonia (Fish pee)

  • Sodium Bicarbonate (Bicarb Soda)

  • Magnesium Hydroxide (Antacids, laxatives)

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