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Acids, Bases, and Salts. Chapter 8. Students Will Be Able To:. Compare and contrast acids and bases and identify the characteristics they have. List some common examples of acids and bases . Describe the ionization of strong acids in water and the dissociation of strong bases in water. Acids.

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students will be able to
Students Will Be Able To:
  • Compare and contrast acids and bases and identify the characteristics they have.
  • List some common examples of acids and bases.
  • Describe the ionization of strong acids in water and the dissociation of strong bases in water.
acids
Acids
  • Is any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water
    • Includes citric fruits (limes, lemons), dill pickles, apples, and grapes
  • When acids dissolve in water, they ionize
    • Process of forming ions
    • Those that ionize are able to conduct electricity
acids1
Acids
  • Acids get their sour taste from hydronium ions
  • Can be identified using an indicator
    • An indicator is a compound that changes color depending on the pH of a solution or substance
  • Blue litmus paper turns red in the presence of an acid
strong vs weak acids
Strong vs. Weak Acids
  • Strong acids ionize completely while weak acids do not
  • Strong acids conduct electricity good while weak acids do not
    • Strong acids are good electrolytes because they have as many H3O+ as they possibly can
      • Electrolytes are substances that dissolves in water and are capable of conducting electric current
examples of strong and weak acids
Examples of Strong and Weak Acids
  • Some examples of strong acids
    • Hydrochloric acid, HCl
      • present in your stomach
    • Sulfuric acid, H2SO4
      • car batteries; the most-used industrial chemical
    • Nitric acid, HNO3
      • used in manufacturing fertilizers and explosives
  • Some examples of weak acids
    • Acetic acid, CH3COOH
      • the acid in vinegar
    • Formic acid, HCOOH
      • the acid in stinging ants
    • Citric acid, H3C6H5O7
      • the acid in citrus fruits
use of acids
Use of Acids
  • Acids are used in many manufacturing processes
  • They are also needed by living organisms
  • Care should be taken when using either weak or strong acids
bases
Bases
  • Is any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
  • Have a bitter, soapy taste
  • Basic solutions tend to feel slippery
  • Also contain ions and are capable of conducting electricity
  • Are identified using red litmus paper
    • Turns blue in the presence of a base
strong vs weak bases
Strong vs. Weak Bases
  • Strong bases contain a metal ion and a hydroxide ion that ionizes completely in water
    • Also known as metal hydroxides
    • Are able to conduct electricity well
      • Therefore, strong bases are good electrolytes
  • Strong bases often are not soluble in water
strong vs weak bases1
Strong vs. Weak Bases
  • Weak bases do not ionize completely in water to form hydroxide ions
care with bases
Care with Bases
  • Bases in their concentrated form are more dangerous than acids
  • Make sure care is taken when working with bases
students will be able to1
Students Will Be Able To:
  • Describe how to name acids.
  • Write formulas for acids.
naming acids
Naming Acids
  • Naming acids depend on whether or not the acid contains oxygen in the anion
  • All acids have the same cation (hydrogen) so there is no need to name it
naming acids without oxygen
Naming Acids Without Oxygen
  • The acid name comes from the root name of the anion name
  • The prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic are then added to the root name of the anion
  • Examples:
    • HCl, which contains the anion chloride, is called hydrochloric acid
    • HCN, which contains the anion cyanide, is called hydrocyanic acid
naming acids with oxygen
Naming Acids With Oxygen
  • Suffixes are used based on the ending of the original name of the oxyanion.
  • If the name of the polyatomic anion ended with -ate, change it to -ic for the acid and if it ended with -ite, change it to -ous in the acid
  • Examples:
    • HNO3, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrate, is called nitric acid
    • HNO2, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrite, is called nitrous acid
writing formulas
Writing Formulas
  • Convert the name to a formula
    • Determine the anion and add an “H” per negative charge
      • Assume that hydrogen, H, has a +1 charge in the compound, even though acids are usually made of non-metals, and therefore covalent
  • For example
    • sulfur-ic acid contains a sulfate ion
    • 2 H+  +  SO42-  = H2SO4
students will be able to2
Students Will Be Able To:
  • Determine the meaning of pH.
  • Examine the relationship between pH and acid or base strength.
  • Identify a neutralization reaction.
  • Describe the importance of titrations while working with acids and bases.
  • Determine what a salt is and how it forms.
  • Compare and contrast soaps and detergents.
slide20
pH
  • Is a value used to express the acidity of alkalinity of a solution
  • Corresponds to the concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions
ph scale
pH Scale
  • Ranges from 0 to 14
    • Acids
      • 0 to 7 (strong 0-3; weak 4-7)
    • Bases
      • 7-14 (strong 11-14; weak 7-10)
    • Neutral
      • 7
differences in acidity
Differences in Acidity
  • Small differences in pH mean larger differences in the hydronium ion concentration
determining ph
Determining pH
  • pH can be determined using several indicators that change color at different pH values
  • pH can also be measured using a pH meter
    • Measures the amount of electric current being created by the movement of the ions in the solution
acid base reactions
Acid- Base Reactions
  • A reaction between an acid and a base is known as a neutralization reaction
  • Neutralization is an ionic reaction
acid base reactions1
Acid- Base Reactions
  • Neutralization reactions tend to form salts and water
  • Not all neutralization reactions produce neutral solutions
    • Depends on
      • Amount of acids and bases that are combined
      • Whether the acids and bases are weak or strong
titrations
Titrations
  • It is a neutralization reaction in which the known concentration of one solution is used to determine the unknown concentration of another solution
salts
Salts
  • Salt can be almost any combination of cations and anions
  • Common table salt contains sodium chloride, NaCl, which is a salt that is formed from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide
  • Salts are useful substances, and are all around us
    • Examples
      • sodium hydrogen carbonate, baking soda
      • silver bromide and silver iodide, in photographic film
      • barium sulfate, sometimes used in taking X rays
      • calcium carbonate, in chalk, limestone, and marble
soaps
Soaps
  • Works with water to clean objects
  • Are able to dissolve in oil and water
  • Are made by reacting animal fats or vegetable oils with a solution of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide
detergents
Detergents
  • Are used instead of soap to wash clothes and dishes
    • Soap does not work well with hard water- leaves behind soap scum
  • Are made of sodium, potassium, or ammonia salts with fatty acids
bleach and disinfectants
Bleach and Disinfectants
  • A disinfectant is a substance that kills bacteria and viruses
  • Bleach is an example of a disinfectant
    • It is a basic solution
antacids
Antacids
  • Are weak bases that neutralize stomach acid
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