Acids bases and salts
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Acids, Bases, and Salts. Chapter 8. Students Will Be Able To:. Compare and contrast acids and bases and identify the characteristics they have. List some common examples of acids and bases . Describe the ionization of strong acids in water and the dissociation of strong bases in water. Acids.

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Acids bases and salts

Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 8


Students will be able to

Students Will Be Able To:

  • Compare and contrast acids and bases and identify the characteristics they have.

  • List some common examples of acids and bases.

  • Describe the ionization of strong acids in water and the dissociation of strong bases in water.


Acids

Acids

  • Is any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water

    • Includes citric fruits (limes, lemons), dill pickles, apples, and grapes

  • When acids dissolve in water, they ionize

    • Process of forming ions

    • Those that ionize are able to conduct electricity


Acids1

Acids

  • Acids get their sour taste from hydronium ions

  • Can be identified using an indicator

    • An indicator is a compound that changes color depending on the pH of a solution or substance

  • Blue litmus paper turns red in the presence of an acid


Strong vs weak acids

Strong vs. Weak Acids

  • Strong acids ionize completely while weak acids do not

  • Strong acids conduct electricity good while weak acids do not

    • Strong acids are good electrolytes because they have as many H3O+ as they possibly can

      • Electrolytes are substances that dissolves in water and are capable of conducting electric current


Examples of strong and weak acids

Examples of Strong and Weak Acids

  • Some examples of strong acids

    • Hydrochloric acid, HCl

      • present in your stomach

    • Sulfuric acid, H2SO4

      • car batteries; the most-used industrial chemical

    • Nitric acid, HNO3

      • used in manufacturing fertilizers and explosives

  • Some examples of weak acids

    • Acetic acid, CH3COOH

      • the acid in vinegar

    • Formic acid, HCOOH

      • the acid in stinging ants

    • Citric acid, H3C6H5O7

      • the acid in citrus fruits


Use of acids

Use of Acids

  • Acids are used in many manufacturing processes

  • They are also needed by living organisms

  • Care should be taken when using either weak or strong acids


Bases

Bases

  • Is any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water

  • Have a bitter, soapy taste

  • Basic solutions tend to feel slippery

  • Also contain ions and are capable of conducting electricity

  • Are identified using red litmus paper

    • Turns blue in the presence of a base


Strong vs weak bases

Strong vs. Weak Bases

  • Strong bases contain a metal ion and a hydroxide ion that ionizes completely in water

    • Also known as metal hydroxides

    • Are able to conduct electricity well

      • Therefore, strong bases are good electrolytes

  • Strong bases often are not soluble in water


Strong vs weak bases1

Strong vs. Weak Bases

  • Weak bases do not ionize completely in water to form hydroxide ions


Care with bases

Care with Bases

  • Bases in their concentrated form are more dangerous than acids

  • Make sure care is taken when working with bases


Students will be able to1

Students Will Be Able To:

  • Describe how to name acids.

  • Write formulas for acids.


Naming acids

Naming Acids

  • Naming acids depend on whether or not the acid contains oxygen in the anion

  • All acids have the same cation (hydrogen) so there is no need to name it


Naming acids without oxygen

Naming Acids Without Oxygen

  • The acid name comes from the root name of the anion name

  • The prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic are then added to the root name of the anion

  • Examples:

    • HCl, which contains the anion chloride, is called hydrochloric acid

    • HCN, which contains the anion cyanide, is called hydrocyanic acid


Naming acids with oxygen

Naming Acids With Oxygen

  • Suffixes are used based on the ending of the original name of the oxyanion.

  • If the name of the polyatomic anion ended with -ate, change it to -ic for the acid and if it ended with -ite, change it to -ous in the acid

  • Examples:

    • HNO3, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrate, is called nitric acid

    • HNO2, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrite, is called nitrous acid


Writing formulas

Writing Formulas

  • Convert the name to a formula

    • Determine the anion and add an “H” per negative charge

      • Assume that hydrogen, H, has a +1 charge in the compound, even though acids are usually made of non-metals, and therefore covalent

  • For example

    • sulfur-ic acid contains a sulfate ion

    • 2 H+  +  SO42-  = H2SO4


Students will be able to2

Students Will Be Able To:

  • Determine the meaning of pH.

  • Examine the relationship between pH and acid or base strength.

  • Identify a neutralization reaction.

  • Describe the importance of titrations while working with acids and bases.

  • Determine what a salt is and how it forms.

  • Compare and contrast soaps and detergents.


Acids bases and salts

pH

  • Is a value used to express the acidity of alkalinity of a solution

  • Corresponds to the concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions


Ph scale

pH Scale

  • Ranges from 0 to 14

    • Acids

      • 0 to 7 (strong 0-3; weak 4-7)

    • Bases

      • 7-14 (strong 11-14; weak 7-10)

    • Neutral

      • 7


Differences in acidity

Differences in Acidity

  • Small differences in pH mean larger differences in the hydronium ion concentration


Determining ph

Determining pH

  • pH can be determined using several indicators that change color at different pH values

  • pH can also be measured using a pH meter

    • Measures the amount of electric current being created by the movement of the ions in the solution


Acid base reactions

Acid- Base Reactions

  • A reaction between an acid and a base is known as a neutralization reaction

  • Neutralization is an ionic reaction


Acid base reactions1

Acid- Base Reactions

  • Neutralization reactions tend to form salts and water

  • Not all neutralization reactions produce neutral solutions

    • Depends on

      • Amount of acids and bases that are combined

      • Whether the acids and bases are weak or strong


Titrations

Titrations

  • It is a neutralization reaction in which the known concentration of one solution is used to determine the unknown concentration of another solution


Salts

Salts

  • Salt can be almost any combination of cations and anions

  • Common table salt contains sodium chloride, NaCl, which is a salt that is formed from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide

  • Salts are useful substances, and are all around us

    • Examples

      • sodium hydrogen carbonate, baking soda

      • silver bromide and silver iodide, in photographic film

      • barium sulfate, sometimes used in taking X rays

      • calcium carbonate, in chalk, limestone, and marble


Soaps

Soaps

  • Works with water to clean objects

  • Are able to dissolve in oil and water

  • Are made by reacting animal fats or vegetable oils with a solution of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide


Detergents

Detergents

  • Are used instead of soap to wash clothes and dishes

    • Soap does not work well with hard water- leaves behind soap scum

  • Are made of sodium, potassium, or ammonia salts with fatty acids


Bleach and disinfectants

Bleach and Disinfectants

  • A disinfectant is a substance that kills bacteria and viruses

  • Bleach is an example of a disinfectant

    • It is a basic solution


Antacids

Antacids

  • Are weak bases that neutralize stomach acid


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