Combustion & Flame
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Combustion & Flame. By Vishnu M Nair. Index. Basic needs How to extinguish Fire The Ignition temperature Inflammable combustion Rapid & Spontaneous Combustion Zones Of Candle Flame Explosion Fuel Fuel Efficiency Global Warming Acid Rain. Basic Needs.

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Combustion & Flame

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Combustion & Flame


Vishnu M Nair


Basic needs

How to extinguish Fire

The Ignition temperature

Inflammable combustion

Rapid & Spontaneous Combustion

Zones Of Candle Flame



Fuel Efficiency

Global Warming

Acid Rain

Basic Needs

Basic Needs

The major conditions for a fire to burn is

  • The presence of Oxygen

  • The presence of fuel

  • The temperature to reach flash point

Basics of Combustion and Flame

Combustion – A chemical process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give off heat is called combustion.

We now understand that fire be seen with the help of the above

Q1. What will you do if you see a uncontrolled fire?

How to extinguish fire?

The answer to that question is so simple.

Fire can only burn with presence of oxygen and fuel and if temperature is above flash point.

So to extinguish fire remove away any of these

For Example

  • By denying the access of oxygen

    Example: If fire is on a human body we should cover him tightly with a blanket like that on the picture below

2. By taking away the fuel

3. By decreasing the temperature below flash point

This can be done by poring water over the fire

Q. What will you do if the fire is caused by an electric short circuit


As water may come in contact with electric shock which could lead to serious injuries or even DEATH

The Ignition Temperature

The lowest temperature at which a substance catches fire is called its Ignition Temperature

It is essential for a substance to reach its ignition temperature to burn

Given here are some fuels and its ignition temperature

Inflammable substance

The Substances which have very low ignition temperature and can easily catch fire with a flame are called inflammable substances

Some examples are: Petrol, Alcohol, Liquid Petroleum Gas

Rapid Combustion and Spontaneous Combustion

Rapid Combustion and Spontaneous Combustion

Rapid Combustion: Gas burns rapidly and produces heat and light. Such combustion is known as rapid combustion.

Rapid Combustion and Spontaneous Combustion

Spontaneous Combustion: The type of combustion in which a material suddenly bursts into flames, without the application of any apparent cause is called Spontaneous Combustion

Zones of Candle Flame


When a cracker is ignited, a sudden reaction takes place with the evolution of heat, light and sound. A large amount of gas formed in the reaction is liberated. Such a reaction is called explosion.


The substance that undergoes combustion is said to be combustible or FUEL

Know more on fuels

A Good Fuel – A good fuel is:-

  • Readily Available

  • Cheap

  • Burns easily in air

  • And does not leave any undesirable substance behind.

Fuel Efficiency

The amount of heat produced on complete combustion of 1 kg fuel is called its calorific value. The calorific value is expressed in a unit called kilojoules per kg (kj/kg).

Burning of fuels leads to harmful products

Global Warming

Combustion of most fuels releases carbon dioxide in environment. Increased carbon dioxide in air is believed to cause global warming

A bear that lost his home because of ice melting

Acid Rain

Burning of coal and diesels releases sulphur dioxide gas. Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen dissolve in rain water and forms acids.

Such a rain is called acid rain.

Acid rain


Done By


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