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Chapter 8 Memory. The Importance of Memory. Memory: Some Key Terms.

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the importance of memory
The Importance of Memory
memory some key terms
Memory: Some Key Terms
  • Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information
  • Encoding: Converting information into a useable form
  • Storage: Holding this information in memory for later use
  • Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage
is memory like a video recording
Is memory like a video recording?
sensory memory
Sensory Memory
  • Sensory memory: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for a few seconds or less (either what is seen or heard); the first stage of memory
  • Iconic memory: A mental image or visual representation
  • Echoic memory: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the activity in the auditory system
short term memory stm
Short-Term Memory (STM)
  • Storing small amounts of information briefly
    • Working memory: Part of STM; like a mental “scratchpad”
    • Selective attention: Focusing (voluntarily) on a selected portion of sensory input (e.g., selective hearing)
    • Phonetically: Storing information by sound; how most things are stored in STM
  • Very sensitive to interruption or interference
long term memory ltm
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
  • Storing meaningful information relatively permanently
  • Stored on basis of meaning and importance
flashbulb memories
Flashbulb Memories
  • Memories created during times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant events
    • Where were you when you heard that terrorists had attacked the USA on September 11th, 2001?
  • Includes both positive and negative events
  • Not always accurate
  • Great confidence is placed in them even though they may be inaccurate
memory and the brain
Memory and the Brain
memory structures
Memory Structures
  • Hippocampus: Brain structure associated with emotion and transfer of information passing from short-term memory into long-term memory
    • If damaged, person can no longer “create” long-term memories and thus will always live in the present
    • Memories prior to damage will remain intact
    • What happens in the brains of people with long-term depression?
short term memory concepts
Short-Term Memory Concepts
  • Digit span: Test of attention and short-term memory; string of numbers is recalled forward or backward
  • Magic number 7 (±2): STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once
    • Information bit: Meaningful single piece of information, like numbers or letters
more short term memory concepts
More Short-Term Memory Concepts
  • Recoding: Reorganizing or modifying information to assist storage in memory
    • Information chunks: Bits of information that are grouped into larger units
    • Easier when you can create meaningful chunks, such as:
      • A D L O R B U G (OR and BUG)
maintenance rehearsal
Maintenance Rehearsal
  • Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM
  • Remember rote learning from Chapter 7. Is this the best way to learn?
  • What would be a better way? (Let’s look ahead)
elaborative encoding
Elaborative Encoding
  • Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM
    • Good way to transfer STM information into LTM
long term memory concepts
Long-Term Memory Concepts
  • Constructive processing: Updating memories on basis of logic, reasoning, or adding new information
  • Pseudo-memories: False memories that a person believes are true or accurate
    • What is a “memory jam”?
  • Network model: views memory as an organized system of linked information (Figure 8.5, p. 259)
    • Arranged by rules, images, categories, symbols, similarity, formal meaning, personal meaning
cognitive interview
Cognitive Interview
  • Use of various cues and strategies to improve eyewitness memory
  • Example: recreate a crime scene to stimulate “retrieval cues”
memory distortion
Memory Distortion
  • Memories that are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to related memories
  • What happened on your wedding day (or another important date)? What happened before and after that day?
types of long term memories
Types of Long-Term Memories
  • Procedural (skills): Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills (e.g., driving, building a tree house, making lasagna)
  • Declarative (fact): Part of LTM that contains factual information
    • Expressed in words or symbols
    • Can be divided into semantic and episodic memory
subparts of declarative memory
Subparts of Declarative Memory
  • Semantic memory: Includes impersonal facts and everyday knowledge
    • A basic dictionary of human knowledge
    • Very lasting and usually not forgotten
    • Examples: names of objects, days of the weeks or months, seasons, simple math skills, work and language
  • Episodic: Includes personal experiences linked with specific times and places
    • “Autobiographical” in nature
    • More susceptible to forgetting than semantic memories
measuring memory is it an all or nothing phenomenon no
Measuring Memory: Is it an all-or-nothing phenomenon? NO.
  • Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state: Feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable
  • Feeling of knowing: Feeling that allows people to predict beforehand whether they’ll be able to remember something
deja vu
Deja vu
  • “Déjà vu is the illusion that you have already experienced a new situation that you are actually seeing for the first time. . . . Déjà vu occurs when a new experience triggers vague memories of a past experience without yeilding any details. The new experience seems familiar even though the older memory is too weak to rise to the level of awareness.” -Text: page 261
memory tasks ways of measuring memory recall recognition relearning
Memory Tasks: Ways of Measuring MemoryRecall, Recognition & Relearning
  • Recall: Direct retrieval of facts or information
    • Easier to remember first and last items in a list
    • Hardest to recall items in the middle of an ordered list; known as the serial position effect
    • Let’s check this out!
measuring memory continued
Measuring Memory Continued
  • Recognition memory: Previously learned material is correctly identified (especially accurate with pictures and photos)
    • Usually superior to recall
  • Distractors: False items included with a correct item
    • Wrong choices on multiple-choice tests due to being too similar to the correct choice
  • False positive: False sense of recognition, usually when not enough choices are provided
    • How could this impact eye-witness identification?
more on measuring memory
More on Measuring Memory
  • Relearning: Learning again something that was previously learned
    • Used to measure memory of prior learning
  • Savings score: measuring tool for relearning. Amount of time saved when relearning information
measuring memory concluded
Measuring Memory Concluded
  • Explicit memory: Past experiences that are consciously brought to mind
    • Recall, recognition and tests at school rely on explicit memories
  • Implicit memory: A memory not known to exist; memory that is unconsciously retrieved
    • Such as the knowing the keys on a keyboard
  • Priming: When cues are used to activate hidden memories
  • Most forgetting occurs directly after memorization
  • Can be due to a failure in encoding, storage or retrieval processes
forgetting encoding failure
Forgetting: Encoding Failure
  • Encoding failure: When a memory was never formed in the first place
    • Often due to divided attention
    • Actively thinking or attending can prevent encoding failure
forgetting storage failure
Forgetting: Storage Failure
  • Memory traces: Physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that occur when memories are stored
  • Memory decay: When memory traces become weaker; fading or weakening of memories
forgetting retrieval failure
Forgetting: Retrieval failure
  • Cue Dependent Forgetting: Aperson will forget if cues are missing at retrieval time
    • Memory cue: Any stimulus associated with a memory; usually enhances retrieval of a memory
more retrieval failure
More retrieval failure
  • State-Dependent Learning: When memory retrieval is influenced by bodily state at time of learning; if your body state is the same at the time of learning AND the time of retrieval, retrievals will be improved
    • If Robert is drunk and forgets where his car is parked, it may be easier to recall the location if he gets drunk again!
more retrieval failures interference
More retrieval failures: Interference
  • Retroactive interference: Tendency for new memories to interfere with retrieval of old memories
  • Proactive interference: Prior learning inhibits (interferes with) recall of later learning
more than simply forgetting dimentia
More than simply forgetting: Dimentia
  • Causes of dimentia:
these impact retrieval too transfer of training
These impact retrieval too: Transfer of Training
  • Positive transfer: Mastery of one task aids learning or performing another
    • Example: Learning to play violin faster because you already plan mandolin
    • Example: Surfing and skateboarding
  • Negative transfer: Mastery of one task conflicts with learning or performing another
    • Example: Backing up a car with a trailer using the same strategy you would use to simply back up a car
retrieval failures repression and suppression
Retrieval failures:Repression and Suppression
  • Repression: Unconsciously pushing painful, embarrassing, or threatening memories out of awareness/consciousness
    • Motivated forgetting
  • Suppression: Consciously putting something painful or threatening out of mind or trying to keep it from entering awareness
memory formation
Memory Formation
  • Consolidation: Forming a long-term memory in the brain
    • this takes some time
  • Retrograde Amnesia: Forgetting events that occurred before an injury or trauma
    • Often from head injury
  • Anterograde Amnesia: Forgetting events that follow an injury or trauma
    • Often from head injury
eidetic imagery aka photographic memory
Eidetic Imageryaka “photographic memory”
  • Occurs when a person (usually a child) has visual images clear enough to be scanned or retained for at least 30 seconds
  • Usually projected onto a “plain” surface, like a blank piece of paper
  • Usually disappears during adolescence and is rare by adulthood
  • Rome in three days:

ways to improve memory encoding strategies
Ways to Improve Memory:Encoding Strategies
  • Spaced practice: Alternating short study sessions with brief rest periods
  • Massed practice: Studying for long periods without rest periods
  • Sleep aids consolidation
    • Lack of sleep decreases retention
  • Hungerdecreases retention
ways to improve memory cont
Ways to Improve Memory (Cont)
  • Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize
  • Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering
ways to improve memory concluded
Ways to Improve Memory Concluded
  • Whole Learning: Studying an entire package of information at once, like a poem
  • Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters)
  • Overlearning: Studying is continued beyond bare mastery
retrieval strategies
Retrieval Strategies
  • Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your progress
  • Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are learning
  • Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently)
mnemonics memory tricks
Mnemonics: Memory “Tricks”
  • Any kindof memory system or aid
    • Use mental pictures
    • Make things meaningful
    • Make information familiar
    • Form bizarre, unusual, or exaggerated mental associations
using mnemonics to remember things in order
Using Mnemonics to Remember Things in Order
  • Form a chain or story: Remember lists in order, forming an exaggerated association connecting item one to two, and so on
  • Take a mental walk: Mentally walk along a familiar path, placing objects or ideas along the path
  • Use a system
keyword method
Keyword Method
  • Aid to memory; using a familiar word or image to link two items