Memory chapter 8
Download
1 / 42

Memory Chapter 8 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 144 Views
  • Uploaded on

Memory Chapter 8. Memory. Retrieval: Retrieval Cues Forgetting Encoding Failure Storage Decay Retrieval Failure. Definition Information Processing Models Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode What We Encode. Storage: Retaining Information Sensory Memory

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Memory Chapter 8' - abla


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Memory chapter 8 l.jpg

MemoryChapter 8


Memory l.jpg
Memory

Retrieval: Retrieval Cues

Forgetting

  • Encoding Failure

  • Storage Decay

  • Retrieval Failure

Definition

Information Processing Models

Encoding: Getting Information In

  • How We Encode

  • What We Encode

Storage: Retaining Information

  • Sensory Memory

  • Working/Short-Term Memory

  • Long-Term Memory

    Rehearsal

    Storing Memories in the Brain

Memory Construction

  • Misinformation and Imagination Effects

  • Source Amnesia

  • Children’s Eyewitness Recall

  • Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?

    Improving Memory


Definition l.jpg
Definition

  • Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time.

  • It is our ability to store and retrieve information.

  • It is not replaying the events


Slide4 l.jpg

  • Which color is on top on a stoplight?

  • How many rows of stars are on the U.S. flag?

  • Whose image is on a dime? Is he wearing a tie?

  • What five words besides In God We Trust appear on most U.S. coins?

  • When water goes down the drain, does it swirl clockwise or counterclockwise?


Slide5 l.jpg

  • Which color is on top on a stoplight?

    Red

  • How many rows of stars are on the U.S. flag?

    9

  • Whose image is on a dime? Is he wearing a tie?

    F.D. Roosevelt with no tie

  • What five words besides In God We Trust appear on most U.S. coins?

    “United States of America” and “Liberty,”

  • When water goes down the drain, does it swirl clockwise or counterclockwise?

    water drains counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere


Studying memory information processing models l.jpg
Studying Memory: Information Processing Models

Monitor

(Retrieval)

Disk

(Storage)

Keyboard

(Encoding)

Sequential Process


Information processing l.jpg
Information Processing

The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory,b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory.

Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/

Corbis

Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works

Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works


Encoding getting information in l.jpg
Encoding: Getting Information In

How We Encode

  • Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed.

  • However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.


Automatic processing l.jpg
Automatic Processing

We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following:

  • Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page.

  • Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day.

  • Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you.


Effortful processing l.jpg
Effortful Processing

Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories.

Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit

© Bananastock/ Alamy


Storage retaining information l.jpg
Storage: Retaining Information

Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below:

Sensory

Memory

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory

Encoding

Events

Encoding

Retrieval

Retrieval


Sensory memory l.jpg
Sensory Memory

Sensory

Memory

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory

Encoding

Events

Encoding

Retrieval

Retrieval


Sensory memories l.jpg
Sensory Memories

The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.

Iconic

0.5 sec. long

Echoic

3-4 sec. long


Whole report l.jpg
Whole Report

Sperling (1960)

R G TF M QL Z S

“Recall”

R T M Z

(44% recall)

50 ms (1/20 second)

The exposure time for the stimulus is so small

that items cannot be rehearsed.


Partial report l.jpg
Partial Report

S X TJ R SP K Y

Low Tone

Medium Tone

High Tone

“Recall”

J R S

(100% recall)

50 ms (1/20 second)

Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.


Time delay l.jpg
Time Delay

A D IN L VO G H

Low Tone

Medium Tone

High Tone

“Recall”

N _ _

(33% recall)

Time

Delay

50 ms (1/20 second)


Working memory l.jpg
Working Memory

Sensory

Memory

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory

Encoding

Events

Encoding

Retrieval

Retrieval


Working memory18 l.jpg
Working Memory

Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds).

The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information (1956).


Capacity l.jpg
Capacity

Ready?

M U T G I K T L R S Y P


Chunking l.jpg
Chunking

The capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.”

F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M

FBI TWA CIA IBM

4 chunks



Long term memory l.jpg
Long-Term Memory

Sensory

Memory

Working

Memory

Long-term

Memory

Encoding

Events

Encoding

Retrieval

Retrieval


Long term memory24 l.jpg
Long-Term Memory

Essentially unlimited capacity store.

R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers

The Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of

buried pine seeds during winter and spring.


Long term memory25 l.jpg

10

Long-term memory

The memory system involved in the long-term storage of information

One way information is organized is in semantic categories (e.g., animals).


Conceptual grid l.jpg

10

Conceptual grid


Types of long term memories l.jpg

10

Types of long-term memories


Contents of long term memory l.jpg

10

Contents of long-term memory

Semantic memories

General knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions

Episodic memories

Personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred



Rehearsal l.jpg
Rehearsal

Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition.

Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ

http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de

Hermann Ebbinghaus

(1850-1909)


Rehearsal31 l.jpg
Rehearsal

The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,

the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.


Memory effects l.jpg
Memory Effects

  • Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.

  • Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.


Serial position effect l.jpg

10

Serial-position effect

The tendency for recall of first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list


Mnemonics l.jpg
Mnemonics

Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory.

ROYGBIV


Storing memories in the brain l.jpg
Storing Memories in the Brain

  • Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous research data showing, through brain stimulation, that memories were unintentionally invented.

  • Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze.


Synaptic changes l.jpg
Synaptic Changes

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.

Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller


Stress hormones memory l.jpg
Stress Hormones & Memory

Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events

Scott Barbour/ Getty Images


Storing implicit explicit memories l.jpg
Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories

Explicit Memoryrefers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.


Slide39 l.jpg

Hippocampus

Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic

system that processes explicit memories.

Weidenfield & Nicolson archives


Anterograde amnesia l.jpg
Anterograde Amnesia

After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia.

Anterograde

Amnesia

(HM)

No New Memories

Memory Intact

Surgery


Implicit memory l.jpg

A

C

B

Implicit Memory

HM is unable to make new memories that are

declarative (explicit), but he can form new

memories that are procedural (implicit).

HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game.


Slide42 l.jpg

Cerebellum

Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain

that processes implicit memories.


ad