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The Underwater Systems Program at the Porto University. Nuno Alexandre Cruz FEUP-DEEC Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto, Portugal http://www.fe.up.pt/~nacruz. Laboratório de Sistemas e Tecnologia Subaquática Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto http://www.fe.up.pt/~lsts.

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the underwater systems program at the porto university

The Underwater Systems Program at the Porto University

Nuno Alexandre Cruz

FEUP-DEEC

Rua Dr. Roberto Frias

4200-465 Porto, Portugal

http://www.fe.up.pt/~nacruz

Laboratório de Sistemas e Tecnologia Subaquática

Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto

http://www.fe.up.pt/~lsts

outline
Outline
  • The Underwater Systems and Technology Laboratory
  • Vehicles
    • Autonomous underwater vehicles
    • Remotely operated vehicle
  • Systems and technology
    • Embedded computer systems
    • Navigation systems
  • Advanced mission concepts
  • Conclusion
the underwater systems and technology laboratory
The Underwater Systems and Technology Laboratory
  • Mission

Design innovative solutions for oceanographic and environmental applications

  • People

4 Faculty staff

10 researchers

  • Vehicles

Autonomous submarines

Remotely operated submarine

  • Technologies

Navigation and control

Acoustic networks

Networked control systems

Power/computer systems

  • Applications

Monitoring sea outfalls

Coastal oceanography

Underwater archaeology

Inspection and intervention

SUMARE Workshop, Villefranche-sur-Mer, 15-16 October 2003

Artwork Courtesy of Michael Incze, NUWC

cooperation
National

Administração dos Portos do Douro e Leixões

Centro de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental

Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto

Instituto Hidrográfico

International

University of California at Berkeley, CA, USA

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA, USA

Naval Postgraduate School, CA, USA

Cooperation
vehicles

Vehicles

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

isurus auv 1997
REMUS class AUV (WHOI)

Length: 1.8m

Diameter: 20 cm

Weight in air: 35 kg

Max speed: 2 m/s

Max range: 100 km

Payload sensors

Sidescan Sonar

CTD

Echo sounder

Optical backscatter

(Video camera)

Isurus AUV (1997)
customization at lsts
Customization at LSTS
  • Computational system
  • On-board software
  • Mission programming
  • Integrated navigation system
  • Power supply and power management
  • Actuation system
operating the isurus auv
Operating the Isurus AUV

Mission Support System

Small boat

Laptop

Acoustic navigation network

Operational Procedures

  • Acoustic network setup
  • Mission programming
  • Vehicle launching
  • ...
  • Vehicle recovery
  • Data download and processing
new generation auv 2003
New Generation AUV (2003)

Main features

Low cost

Carbon fiber hull

Modular sensor adapters

Payload: 8 kg

Depth rating: 150 m

Autonomy: 20 hours +

2 vert. & 2 horiz. fins

1 propeller

isurus missions

Isurus Missions

Bathymetry

Oceanographic data collection

Environmental monitoring

estuary of minho river 1998
Estuary of Minho River (1998+)
  • Width: 1-2 km
  • Depth: 2-5 m
  • Currents: over 1m/s
  • Mission Profile
    • NW-SE cross sections, 50 m apart
    • Section length: 700-1200 m
    • Tracks repeated for various depths
    • Data collected:
      • Temperature and Salinity (CTD)
      • Bathymetry (CTD & Echosounder)
tapada do outeiro 2000
Tapada Do Outeiro (2000+)

Mission Objectives

  • Study the impact of discharges from thermoelectric power plant
  • Assess the erosion of the river bed

Mission Data

  • Temperature
  • Bathymetry profiles
aveiro sea outfall 2002
Aveiro Sea Outfall (2002+)

Mission Objectives

  • Evaluation of environmental impact of sewage outfall
  • Find and map the plume

Mission Scenario

  • Open sea
  • 2 km off the coast of Aveiro
  • 20 m of depth
aveiro sea outfall planning
Aveiro Sea Outfall – Planning

Mission Planning

  • Reference data collection
  • Simulation of plume behavior
  • Delimitation of mission area
  • Mission programming

Mission Data

  • Temperature
  • Salinity
  • Optical Backscatter
aveiro sea outfall results

2

4

10

Aveiro Sea Outfall - Results

Temperature and Salinity

4

2

10

aveiro sea outfall lessons
Aveiro Sea Outfall – Lessons
  • Launching an AUV at open sea is hard
  • Recovering an AUV from open sea is VERY hard
  • Murphy is ALWAYS watching
  • Safety measures are never too many

Wave Height at Leixões

2002-07-26 to 2002-08-02

Mission

Duration

vehicles1

Vehicles

Remotely Operated Vehicle

the ies project 1999 2002
The IES Project (1999-2002)
  • Objectives
    • Develop an automated system for the inspection of underwater structures
    • Provide non-trained operators with autonomous and semi-autonomous operation modes
  • Strategy
    • Acquire a customized version of a commercial ROV
    • Integrate on-board computational system
    • Install navigation and inspection sensors
    • Implement a set of automated maneuvers
original rov 2000
Original ROV (2000)

Customized Vehicle

  • Phantom 500 S (Deep Ocean Engineering)
  • Electronics compartment
  • Enlarged frame
  • Increased flotation
  • Extra motor power(4 * 1/8 hp)
rov hardware project
ROV Hardware Project

Console

Umbilical

ROV

ComputationalSystem

InterfaceDevices

PowerManagement

NavigationSensors

InspectionSensors

Actuators

Compass

Inclination

Depth

Video

Sonar

Picture

Thrusters

Lights

Pan & Tilt

Doppler

IMU

Acoustics

rov hardware development
ROV Hardware Development

Main container

  • Computational system
  • Navigation system
  • Interface devices
  • Power distribution

Small containers

  • Power distribution
  • Power management
  • Motor control
  • Interface devices
current rov configuration
Current ROV Configuration
  • Inspection system
    • Camera: Inspector (ROS)
    • Pan and Tilt unit (Imenco)
    • Lights: up to 600W (DSP&L)
    • Forward looking sonar (Imagenex)
  • Navigation
    • DVL: Argonaut (Sontek)
    • IMU: HG1700 (Honeywell)
    • Digital Compass: TCM2 (PNI)
    • Depth sensor, 730+ (PSI)
    • Acoustic Tx/Rx: 20-30 KHz
  • Computational system
    • PC/104 stack, Pentium PC
    • QNX RTOS
    • Ethernet

Power supply

Junction box

Umbilical

Winch

Spare kit

rov modes of operation
ROV Modes of Operation

Modes of operation

2.Teleprogramming:Pre-programmed maneuvers

1.Teleoperation:Direct commands using a joystick

Maneuver Parameters

Controls

Real-time video

Motion

Plan

Sonar

Data

Environment

Map

Internal State

rov operations at apdl
ROV Operations at APDL
  • Objectives
    • Detect corrosion in steel plates protecting walls
    • Register video footage with localization data
    • Tag features for diver intervention or latter reinspection

Inspected Structures

rov operations at apdl1
ROV Operations at APDL
  • Main Difficulties
    • Reduced visibility (<0.5m)
    • Boundary perturbations
    • Cable dynamics
  • Solutions
    • High sensitivity camera
    • Variable illumination
    • Multiple sensor fusion for navigation and control
    • Navigation info at the console
embedded computational systems
Based on PC/104 technology

Small form-factor

Plenty of COTS vendors and solutions

Low-cost boards

Software applications and drivers developed for RTOS

Several systems in operation

Underwater vehicles (AUV/ROV)

Automated trucks and busses

Embedded Computational Systems
navigation systems
Navigation Systems
  • Internal devices
    • Digital compasses
    • Doppler velocimeters
    • Inertial systems
    • Pressure sensors (depth)
    • Acoustic Tx/Rx boards
  • Algorithms
    • LBL navigation
    • Sensor fusion (Kalman filter)
    • Post-mission trajectory smoothing
    • External tracking
  • Navigation networks
    • Acoustic beacons
    • Surface buoys

d1

d2

baseline

(not to scale)

vehicle navigation
Vehicle Navigation
  • Kalman filter based algorithm
    • Filter state: horizontal position and water current
    • High rate dead-reckoning data
    • Low rate range measurements
  • Real-time transponder selection
    • Covariance matrix updated in real time
    • Interrogation sequence driven by innovation potential
post mission trajectory smoothing
Post Mission Trajectory Smoothing

Trajectory

detail

real-time

  • Algorithm based on the Rauch-Tung-Striebel nonlinear smoother
  • State similar to the online filter
  • Estimates depend on past and “future” data
  • Uses data recorded on the on-board computer

smoothed

Uncertainty

real-time

smoothed

passive tracking algorithm

txponder detects & replies

vehicle detects & pings txponder #2

txponder detects & replies

vehicle detects & pings txponder #1

txponder detects & replies

vehicle pings txponder #1

 t1

 t1

 t4

 t4

 t1

 t2

 t3

 t2

 t3

 t2

time

ping #1 detected

ping #2 detected

ping #1 detected

2*  t1 +  t2 +  t3

2*  t4 +  t2 +  t3

time

Passive Tracking Algorithm
external tracking mechanism
External Tracking Mechanism
  • Normal operation
    • Listenning device just detects pings sent by the vehicles
    • After two interrogations, a range is computed
    • Listenning device can be located anywhere within acoustic range (including other AUVs!)
    • Vehicles keep navigating at the end of mission
  • Emergency operation
    • Simple commands can be sent to the vehicles
    • Vehicles carry an automatic responder
    • Ranges can be estimated even with computer system shut down
mission tracking software
Mission Tracking Software
  • Interface to the navigation beacons
    • display of acoustic signals being transmitted and received
    • map the position of the surface buoys (GPS)
    • map the position of the vehicles
    • reconfiguration of the frequency pairs
    • transmission of “special” commands
  • Flexible operation
    • runs on any laptop connected to a radio modem
    • may run on several locationssimultaneously
acoustic navigation network
Acoustic Navigation Network

Multifrequency acoustic beacon

  • Multi-channel transmitter and receiver
  • Programmable frequency pairs
  • Simultaneous navigation of multiple vehicles
  • Medium frequency signals (20-30khz), over 2km range

Surface Buoys

  • Stainless steel structure
  • Polyurethane flotation disc
  • GPS receiver
  • Radio modem
multipurpose surface buoy
Multipurpose Surface Buoy
  • Acoustic navigation
  • Moored sensors
  • Communication relay

Radio antenna

Waterproofcontainer

Fiberglass coated Polyurethane foam

Underwater cablesand connectors

Multifrequency

Transponder

Nylon/PVCcylinder

Acoustic transducer

To anchor

the piscis project 2002 2005
Objectives

Development of a new generation AUV

Simultaneous navigation of multiple AUVs

Coordinated operation of AUVs

Specification and control of sensor driven missions

The PISCIS Project (2002-2005)
  • LSTS Approach
    • Improvement in mechanical design
    • Development of acoustic navigation systems
    • Synthesis of controllers for networked vehicles
  • Consortium
    • FEUP, CIMAR, APDL, ISEP
advanced mission concepts1
Advanced Mission Concepts
  • Real-time adaptive sampling
    • Model of oceanographic processes
    • Coarse survey to localize features
    • Track features and identify model parameters
  • Cooperative missions
    • Each vehicle makes a local measurement
    • Vehicles share a minimum of data
  • Gradient following
    • Detect and follow a given gradient
    • Possibilities for single and multiple vehicles
conclusions and future work
Conclusions and Future Work
  • Conclusions
    • The LSTS team has accumulated valuable expertise in development and integration of underwater systems and technologies
    • Low operational costs allowed for development validation by intensive field operations
    • Research has been driven by end-user requirements and strongly influenced by mission results
  • What’s ahead?
    • New AUV expected to be tested during 2003
    • New AUV fully operational in 2004
    • Navigation of multiple AUVs expected during 2004
    • Coordinated operation of AUVs expected during 2004
    • Communication between AUVs, buoys and shore during 2004
    • New sensors for ROV during 2004
    • Intervention capabilities for ROV during 2004

SUMARE Workshop, Villefranche-sur-Mer, 15-16 October 2003

Artwork Courtesy of Michael Incze, NUWC

thank you

Thank You.

Questions?

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