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Transitional words and phrases Paragraph coherence. 轉折語氣 段落一致性. Contents: Transition signals Paragraph coherence Clarity Compound Adjectives Write as much as is appropriate. Transition signals.

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Transitional words and phrases paragraph coherence

Transitional words and phrasesParagraph coherence

轉折語氣

段落一致性


Contents:

  • Transition signals

  • Paragraph coherence

  • Clarity

  • Compound Adjectives

  • Write as much as is appropriate



Transition signals are connecting words or phrases that act like bridges between parts of your writing.

Transition signals act like signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas.

They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing. Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas.

They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another.


Three types of Transition signals

- transition phrases

- conjunctive adverbs

1. Sentence Connectors

2. Clause connectors

3. Others

  • coordinating conjunctions

  • subordinating conjunctions


1 sentence connectors transition phrases conjunctive adverbs
1. Sentence Connectors (transition phrases & conjunctive adverbs)

Transition phrases:

  • Appear in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.

  • A coma is needed.

Example:

For example, the Baltic Sea (, for example) in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as the Rea Sea in the Middle East (, for example).


Examples:

In warm climate zones, water evaporates rapidly; therefore,its net profit declined.

Some English words do not have exact equivalents in other languages; for example, there is no German word for the adjective fair, as in fair play.

Conjunction Adverbs:

Often used with a semicolon and a comma to join two independent clauses.


2. Clause Connectors

Examples:

In a matriarchy, the mother is the head of the family, andall of the children belong to her clan.

In warm climate zones, water evaporates, sothe concentration of salt is greater.

Coordinating conjunctions 對等連接:

Used with a comma to join two independent clauses and to form a compound sentence.


Yet and But:

Examples:

Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12,yethe became a famous inventor.

I want to study art,butmy parents want me to become an engineer.

Yet and But an opposite idea is coming.

Yet: preferred when the 2nd clause is an unexpected or surprising contrast to the 1st clause.

But: preferred when the 2 clauses are direct oppositions.

Yet is similar in meaning to “nevertheless”.

But is similar to “however”.


Examples:

Although the company’s sale increased last year, its net profit declined.

The company’s net profit declined last year although its sales increased.

Subordinating conjunctions 從屬連接

Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is joined to form a complex sentence.

Position: use a comma if the DC comes before the IC; do not use a comma if the DC comes after the IC.


3. Others

Examples:

An additional reason for the firm’s bankruptcy was the lack of competent management.

Examples ofvocabulary differences between British and American English include petrol/gasoline, windscreen/windshield, and lorry/truck.

Despite increased sales, the company’s profit declined last quarter.

Indicating transition:

additional (adj.); despite (prep.); examples (n.).



Sample text

Sample Text

Sample text:

http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/trans1.html


Paragraph coherence
Paragraph Coherence

  • Coherence: how sentences hold together.

  • A coherent paragraph does more than simply lay down the facts -- it organizes them, creating a logical argument that makes sense from idea to idea.

  • Coherent paragraphs have a beginning, a middle, and an end.


Four ways to achieve coherence:

1. Repeating key nouns/ key words

2. Using linking pronouns

3. Using transition signals

4. Applying logical order


weak

Although related by topic (housing shortage), each sentence makes its own separate point with no link to the sentences before or after. The result is a group of related yet separate ideas instead of one coherent paragraph.

improved

Each separate fact now flows into the next, creating a coherent whole.

Example

  • Limited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. A high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis. A solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. The housing problem has grown in the last twenty years.

  • Limited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. In fact, the problem has grown in the last twenty years. Because a high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing, a solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis.



Repetition of key nouns

(how many key nouns, pronouns are used?)


Use of consistent pronouns:Avoid change of person or change of number.(why is it inconsistent?)


Transition signalsWhich paragraph is easier to understand?


Clarity
Clarity

Make sure every pronoun has a clear antecedent.


Examples
Examples:

Norden picked up the wrench, removed the nut,

and handed it to Robert.

Complaining angrily, John wrote it up and sent it to the

newspaper. (what is it?)

Norden picked up the wrench, removed the nut,

and handed the tool to Robert.

Angrily, John wrote up his complaint and sent it to the

newspaper.


Avoid the use of the indefinite it and they
Avoid the use of the indefinite it and they.

In the college handbook, it lists the holidays we get in the

winter quarter.

At DuPont, they provide very reasonable health insurance.

The college handbooklists the holidays we get in the winter

quarter.

DuPont provides very reasonable health insurance.


Eliminate the vague it they is when and is where
Eliminate the vague it, they, is when, and is where.

1. In Oregon, they have passed a law which encourages the recycling of waste materials.

2. In the instruction manual, it explains how to operate an chewing machine.

3. Inflation is whenthe dollar is worth less than previously.

4. At the Farmers’ Auction Block is where they have many buyers of truck crops.

Oregon has passed a law which …

The instruction manual explains how to operate…

Inflation occurs when the dollar is ....

Many buyers of truck crops are at the Farmers’ Action Block.


Practice
practice

1. I went with Brad to Phil’s place because he wanted company.

2. Peter spoke to the assistant, and he was very rude.

3. The division manger always favored Sam. This

angered the other employees.

4. John showed the news reporter how to take good

pictures, and his pictures turned out beautifully.

Because Brad wanted company, I went with him to Phil’s place.

Peter spoke very rudely to the assistant.

This action angered…

the reporter’s pictures


Gail’s hiring of the waitress was a wise move on her part. Gail hired the waitress. This move was wise on her part.

5. Gail hired the waitress, which was a wise move

on her part.

6. After the electrician installed new switches in the motors, some of them did not work.

7. Plant three-food azalea in front of the seven-food rhododendrons to make them stand out.

8. As the ferry boat approaches the tugboat, it blows a warning.

some of the switches did not work.

the rhododendrons (or the azaleas) stand out.

The ferry boat blows a warning as it approaches the tugboat.


Compound adjectives
Compound Adjectives Gail hired the waitress. This move was wise on her part.複合形容詞


  • A single adjective made up of two or more words is called a "compound adjective".

  • The words in a compound adjective are linked together by a hyphen (or hyphens) to show that they are part of the same adjective.

  • A compound adjective is a modifier of a noun. Compound adjectives do not always have hyphens. 

  • They are hyphenated to avoid confusion.


Types of hyphenated compound adjectives
Types of hyphenated compound adjectives "compound adjective".

A、名詞為主的複合形容詞:

1. Adjective + Noun(including comparatives and superlatives)

2. Numeric+ Noun (Singular)

3. Noun + Noun

(Adjectival phrases are often hyphenated to avoid confusion with nouns.)

A red-light district.  A full-time employee.  A high-level requirement. 

A large-scale development.  A shorter-term solution

A seven-year itch.  A ten-storey building.  A five-minute walk

A parent-teacher conference.  Some food-web dependencies. 

A crude-oil processing.  An ice-cream shop


B "compound adjective". 、形容詞為主的複合形容詞:

1. Adjective + Adjective

2. Noun + Adjective

A dark-green dress. 

A bitter-sweet memory.

A water-proof jacket. 

A nation-wide campaign. 

A duty-free shop. 

A world-famous player.


C "compound adjective". 、分詞為主的複合形容詞:

主動語態 - 用現在分詞

被動語態 - 用過去分詞

1. Adjective+ Participle

2. Adverb + Participle

3. Noun + Participle

4. Numeric + Past Participle

5. Past Participle + Adverb

6. Past Participle + Preposition


An ugly-looking goose = A goose which looks ugly. "compound adjective".

A snow-covered mountain = A mountain which is covered with snow.

An eye-catching girl = A girl who catches people’s eyes.

1. Adjective+ Participle

(including comparatives and superlatives)

2. Adverb + Participle

A never-ending story = A story which never ends.

A well-paid salary. 

A well-respected teacher


An adventure-packed quest = A quest which is packed with adventures.

A home-made cookie.= The cookie was made at home.

A heart-broken story.

A fun-loving person.

3. Noun + Participle

4. Numeric + Past Participle

5. Past Participle + Adverb

6. Past Participle + Preposition

A one-eyed bear. 

A two-sided story

A laid-off worker = A work who is laid off.

A scaled-down operation.

An agreed-upon solution.


We adventures.should not place a hyphen in a compound adjective if

the adjectives are capitalized, such as when they are part

of a title.

  • His book was entitled, "Gender Neutral Language in

  • English Usage," and it revolutionized the way people think

  • about sex roles.

  • However: His book on gender-neutral language

  • revolutionized the way people think about sex roles.


Practice1
practice adventures.

hand-made

1.This is a dress which was made by hand.

This is a _________ dress.

2. It is a walk which takes just 7 minutes.

It is just a ___________ walk.

3. I like the house which was painted brown.

I like the ___________ house.

4. Can you see the star which is shining brightly?

Can you see the _____________ star.

5. This is a cake which is made carefully.

This is a ____________ cake.

seven-minute

brown-painted

brightly-shining

carefully-made


Too many passive sentences
Too Many Passive Sentences adventures.

Because passive sentence are usually longer and harder to read, using too many can make your writing slow and uninteresting.

Active sentences, on the other hand, are generally clearer, more direct, and seem stronger.

However, this does not mean you should stop using passive sentences. Use passive sentences only when you want to emphasize something important.


Suggestions about when to use passive sentences
Suggestions about when to use passive sentences adventures.:

1.When the action is more important than the doer:

The theater was opened last month.

New students are invited to meet the dean in Room 126.

2. When the receiver of the action is more important than the doer:

Everyone was given a key to the gym.

The letters were faxed this morning.


4 adventures.. When you don’t know the doer, don’t care, or don’t want your reader to know:

A mistake was made, and all the scholarship application files. This report was written at the last minute.

5. When you want to sound objective:

The pigeons were observed over a period of three weeks. The subjects were divided into three groups.

3. When the result of the action is more important than the doer:

Our advice was followed by our clients.

The new computers were installed by the system staff.



My favorite place to visit is my grandparents’ house near adventures.the

lake where we love to fish and swim, and we often take the boat out on the lake.

(Breaking the sentence into two can make your writing clearer and more interesting.)

My favorite place to visit is my grandparents’ house near the lake. We love to fish and swim there, and we often take the boat out on the lake.

(I). Too many long sentences:

The following sentence may be confusing to read because

of its length:


I knew my friends would throw me a party. It was for my birthday. There was something in the air. I felt it for a whole week before that. I was nervous. I was also very excited. I got home that night. My friends didn’t disappoint me. I walked in my house. All my friends yelled, “surprise!”

To improve the above paragraph, you should join some of the short sentences using connectors.

(II). Sentences that are too short:

Too many short sentences often makes the writing sound

choppy:


A good style often involves the combination of both short and long sentences.

Because it was my birthday, I knew my friends would through me a party. There was something in the air for a whole week before that. I was nervous but excited when I got home that night. I wasn’t disappointed. When I walked in my house, all my friends yelled, “Surprise!”


Write as much as is appropriate
Write As Much As Is Appropriate and long sentences.

“The professional writer writes in plastic; the amateur writer writes in concrete.”

this means that the professional works his sentences

over and over, knowing that the first version is seldom

the best.


One of the most common errors is using unnecessary words. and long sentences.

What is the obvious problem of the following sentence?

“Many uneducated citizens who have never attended

school continue to vote for better schools.”


Other examples
Other examples and long sentences.

Each and every employee will report in writing and complete

and turn in form number 402 by August 31 not later.

Each employee will complete and turn in form 402 by August 31. (10 words saved)

The employers cooperated together and endorsed a

confirmation of the important essentials of the concurring

agreement.

The employers cooperated and endorsed the essentials

of the agreement.


Meaningless and Ineffective Usages and long sentences.

List of words/phrases that be made simpler:


Practice2
practice and long sentences.

checking

1. The clerk reviewed the statement for the purpose of checking for errors.

2. All the students must know the absolutely basic fundamentals of grammar.

3. The politician tried to make his influence felt among the citizens.

4. The bank teller asked the customer to endorse the check on the back.

5. The governor’s assistant gave a speech on the subject of the resources of Texas.

6. The patient was to take his medicine at regular intervals of time.

fundamentals

influence

endorse the check

a speech on

regularly


  • Only and long sentences. →注意這個字在句子中的位置。

  • 當你要表達"He kicked that ball only ten yards." 的意思時,切勿寫成"He only kicked that ball ten yards."


Plague words and phrases
Plague Words and Phrases and long sentences.


Connecticut's  woodlands and long sentences.are in better shape now than ever before.

There are more woodlands in Connecticut now than there  were in 1898.

This is because there are fewer farmers now.

1. “All things considered”:

All things considered, Connecticut's  woodlands are in better shape now than ever before.

2. “As a matter of fact”:

As a matter of fact, there are more  woodlands in Connecticut now than there  were in 1898.

3. “At the present time”:

This is because there are fewer farmers at the present time.


Woodlands have grown in area and long sentences.because farmers have abandoned their fields.

The fear among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for.

People's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts.

4. “Because of the fact that”:

Woodlands have grown in area because of the fact that farmers have abandoned  their fields.

5. “Exists”:

The fear that exists among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for.

6. “For the most part”:

For the most part, people's suspicions are  based on a misunderstanding of the facts.


This wasteful policy ought to be revoked. and long sentences.

Citizens of northeast Connecticut became very upset about his policy.

The state would  have been better off without such a  policy.

Legislators are already reviewing the statutes.

7. “In my opinion”:

In my opinion, this wasteful policy ought  to be revoked.

8. “In the case of”:

In the case of this particular policy, citizens of northeast Connecticut became very upset.

9. “In the final analysis”:

In the final analysis, the state would have been better off without such a policy.

10. “In the process of”:

Legislators are already in the process of reviewing the statutes.


They and long sentences. can't wait to get  rid of this one.

11. “It seems that”:

It seems that they can't wait to get rid of this one.

12. “The point I am trying to make”:

The point I am trying to make is that sometimes public policy doesn't  accomplish what it set out to achieve.

13. “Type of”:

Legislators need to be more careful of the type of policy they propose.

Sometimes public policy doesn't  accomplish what it set out to achieve.

Legislators need to be more careful of the policy they propose.


Web links
Web links and long sentences.

  • http://www.englishpage.com/prepositions/phrasaldictionary.html (Phrasal Verb Dictionary)

  • http://valenciaenglish.netfirms.com/phrasals00.htm (Phrasal verb introduction)

  • http://www.englishdaily626.com/c-mistakes.php (common mistakes)

  • http://www.cybertranslator.idv.tw/grammar/phrasalverbs.htm (common Phrasal Verbs )


  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ and long sentences. (普渡大學寫作中心)

  • http://www.chineseowl.idv.tw/html/c_new.htm

    (The Chinese online writing lab – 柯泰德 Ted Knoy)

  • http://blog.udn.com/trjason

    (廖柏森 英語與翻譯教學)

  • http://www.cybertranslator.idv.tw/grammar/grammar.htm

    (文法寫作指南)

  • http://www.mhhe.com/mayfieldpub/tsw/esl-link.htm (Common writing problems)


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