Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
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Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Separating the Hype from the Reality Anthony Furness Technical Director, AIM UK. RFID - Brief History (After Landt , J 2001)*. * Landt , J (2001) Shrouds of Time – The history of RFID, An AIM Publication.

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Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Separating the Hype from the Reality Anthony Furness

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Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Separating the Hype from the Reality

Anthony Furness

Technical Director, AIM UK


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

RFID - Brief History (After Landt, J 2001)*

* Landt, J (2001) Shrouds of Time – The history of RFID, An AIM Publication


Rfid the nature of hype mainly focused on tags

RFID - the nature of hype – mainly focused on tags

  • Devices the size of a grain of rice – chip, but not the device

  • Can be read at any distance – no, and range depends upon a number

  • of factors

  • Consume no energy – no, energy consumption dependent on the type

  • of device, passive devices consume energy from interrogation source

  • Cost next to nothing – no cost dependent upon type – passive devices

    still cost more than the target 5 cents

  • Can communicate with one another – not so unless they are active

  • devices with two-way communication capability

  • Any number can be read at time – not so and certainly not

  • simultaneously – readability depends upon a number of factors

  • No standards – no, well over 100 standards, including international

  • standards


Rfid the nature of misunderstanding mainly focused on tags

RFID - the nature of misunderstanding – mainly focused on tags

  • Tags cannot operate near metal or water – performance in respect of

  • proximity to any materials requires some understanding of

  • electromagnetic theory and practice and of tag and systems design

  • Tags can be read without line of sight – depending upon the nature of

  • materials and conditions between reader and tag – again requires some

  • understanding of electromagnetic theory and practice and of tag and

  • systems design

  • RFID Systems to costly – depends upon how appropriate RFID is to the

  • application and well an application for RFID has been designed, bearing

  • in mind the need to justify on economic as well as technical grounds

  • of device, passive devices consume energy from interrogation source


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

The RFID Data Carriers and Systems benefits key features:

  • Fast, automatic or semi-automatic data entry

  • Accurate data entry

  • Immediacy of information

  • Additional, process related benefits when effectively applied

  • Identification linkage, options and dividends

  • Radical process improvements, when effectively applied.

  • Fast returns on investment for well defined and implemented applications

  • Opportunities for object-linked innovation


Rfid is important for a number of reasons

RFID is important for a number of reasons:

  • Versatile identification and data carrier technology

  • Electronic data capture technology, complementary to other

  • automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technologies

  • Radical, beneficially disruptive technology when effectively

    applied

  • Revolutionary in its relevance to sectors of industry, commerce

    and services – wide ranging applications

  • Significant standards development at international level

  • On-going developments – Internet of Things – the reality!


Rfid essential system elements

RFID Essential System Elements

Tag

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

Radio frequency carrier + coding for communication management purposes

Application Commands

Host Information Management System – Applications software

Antennas

RFID Middleware

Interrogator (Reader / Encoder)

Communication Channel

Application Responses

Wide range of products:

Tags

Reader / interrogators

Software and Services

Modulated radio frequency carrier - data carried on signal, in this case amplitude modulated

Tags representing two different categories of chip-based RFID


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Tag

Tag

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

…air interface

Host Information Management System – Applications software

Antennas

RFID Middleware

Interrogator (Reader / Encoder)

Effectively applying RFID is about better understanding what happens between these antennas and the nature of this depends upon many factors – frequency, power, modulation, encoding, materials and conditions between antennas – practicalities!


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Tag

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

..encoding/decoding

Host Information Management System – Applications software

Antennas

RFID Middleware

Interrogator (Reader / Encoder)

Establishing the best approach to source and channel encoding, and subsequent modulation, followed by appropriate decoding


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

… frequencies& Air Interface Standards ISO/IEC 18000

Part 1 – Reference architecture & definition of parameters

All these have been published

National and international agencies specify and govern spectrum usage


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

…RFID Spectrum usage

Significantly influenced by SS-based developments – products and infrastructure

Dominated by EPC ISO 18000-6CGen 2 -based developments – products and infrastructure

Significantly influenced by NFC and communication -based developments – products and infrastructure


Tag and system design

…Tag and System design

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

Antenna Design

Rectifier & Detector circuitry

Tag

Circuitry

Reader

Circuitry

Clock – Logic – Decode – Memory - I/O circuitry

Matching circuitry

Tags require between 10-40 µW to read – receiving 100-120 µW

Attention that follows will be confined to antenna considerations


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Modulation Circuitry

Rectifier /AC clamp

(Passive device)

Clock Generator

Power-On reset

Elements within the chip

Memory

Control logic

(incl Anticollision)

Security logic

Memory select/data transfer control

Internal logic/microprocessor

Increased cost

Increased complexity

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

…developments in tag technology

  • Increased complexity generally means:

  • Greater circuit complexity

  • Greater data transfer requirements

  • Greater power requirements (active

  • vs passive powering)

  • Greater cost

Energy harvesting associated with passive (battery-less) RFID devices generally insufficient to meet higher complexity needs


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

…systems development and and Integration:

  • Near Field Communication

    • Phone acts as tag emulator

    • Phone is also a tag reader

    • Phone is also a tag writer

  • Re-writable paper and variants

    • Physical (PR) and chemical (CR) rewrite mechanisms

    • Integral RFID

  • RFID Sensors and wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs)

    • Machine-to-machine (M2M) capability

Sensed

data

Sensor

networks

Monitoring and management

DB Server

Source: NIA, Korea, 2006.


Levels of identification and data carrier requirements

Transport

Unit

Item

Item

Item

Item

Item

…levels of Identification and data carrier requirements

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

Transportation

Large Containers

Unit Load “Pallet”

RFID having an increasingly significant role to play

Package

Package

Item


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

Standards, other than air interface

  • GRIFS an EU funded project to identify RFID standards

  • First deliverable identified 125 standards

  • http://grifs-project.eu/db/


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

…processes and RFID attributes that can enhance performance

Process

Information / data update

Information / data

Knowledge and decision support

IIDs

PaID

Focused Process Output

Process Focus

SSPIDs

Process support

Personnel

Knowledge and support

Equipment / asset support

Utilities

Materials

ASIDs

UTIDs

Exploiting identifiers in other processes for information gathering, statistics, management, control and decision support

MIDs

LIDs

EIDs

IIDs – Information identifiers, PeID – Process entity IDs, SSPIDs – Process Support Personnel IDs, ASIDs – Asset IDs, UTIDs – Utility IDs, MIDs – Materials IDs, LIDs – Location IDs, EIDs – Event IDs (time stamps)


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Further layers of Data Capture Technology

ID + Additional Item-attendant data

Interrogator / Gate way device

Host Information Management System

Wider area communications and Networks

Actuators

Actuators

Actuators

Sensory data carriers

Interrogator / Gate way device

Host Information Management System

Networked data carriers

Internet +

Interrogator / Gate way device

Host Information Management System

Physical interface zone

Applying RFID Effectively requires understanding of…

…how it relates to new concepts – such as…

Internet Connected

…The Internet of Things

Application Layer :

Web

Emails

Messaging

Specific Domains for IoT?

Specific application structure for the IoT?

The Internet – Endpoint computers

Object-connected entities without embedded computers

CASAGRAS Inclusive Model – Internet connected


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

Is all this understanding really necessary to apply RFID effectively?

  • YES – and more!

  • Especially for:

    • Systems Integrators

    • Systems suppliers

    • Advisors and Consultants

    • Users who want to have full control over their projects

  • For those new to RFID an awareness briefing that explains in simple terms much of the technical underpinning can go a long way to approaching RFID effectively and asking appropriate questions of vendors, systems integrators


Radio frequency identification rfid separating the hype from the reality anthony furness

To apply RFID effectively requires awareness, education, training in RFID practicalities and business assist for those that are new to RFID

…RACE Network RFID can help

Thank you for your attention

Questions?

www.race-networkrfid.org


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