Antique Automobile Club of America - www.aaca.org 1769 *
Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot (1725-1804) built a steam powered gun tractor capable of 2 mph. In addition to pulling an artillery piece, the vehicle could carry up 4 people. Cugnot's vehicle proved unmaneuverable and was quickly wrecked in what some consider the first automobile accident.
Richard Trevithick built a full-size road carriage powered by steam. It blew up after just four days of operation. He had carelessly let the boiler go dry.
George Selden filed for his patent on a 'road engine'. The high speed internal combustion engine was yet to be invented, and Selden managed to keep the patent 'pending' for over 15 years--it issued in 1895.
French automobile manufacturer Emile Constant Levassor drove one of his cars over the 1,170 kilometer course in the Paris-Bordeaux-Paris race at an average speed of 24 kilometers per hour. The longest stop for servicing took just 22 minutes. Levassor had been in the automobile manufacturing business since 1891. Automobiles were already considered a common sight on the streets of Paris.
French and German manufacturers were selling cars through catalogues.
* In Springfield, Massachusetts, Charles and Frank Duryea, two bicycle mechanics, formed the first U.S. company to manufacture automobiles. The brothers had built their first working automobile in 1893. That 1893 vehicle had been built by outfitting a second-hand carriage, which cost $70, with a one-cylinder gasoline engine.
The introduction of the moving assembly line at Ford allowed the company to push production past 500,000 units, while dropping the price of a Model T to $440, and raising workers wages to $5 per day--twice the standard industrial wage in America. In terms of purchasing power, the Ford $5 day gave workers a daily wage that was equivalent to the weekly earnings for an industrial worker in Britain. Thus, assuming a 6-day work week for unskilled and semi-skilled workers, the Ford assemblers had twice the purchasing power of their American counterparts, 6 times the purchasing power of workers at comparable skill levels in Britain. ($440 de 1914 = $7900 de 2001)
The U.S. automobile industry still suffered from the Depression and reported production of just 2.5 million units. The world's second largest producer, Britain, produced just under 9% of the world total of almost 4 million (fewer than the U.S. had produced alone in 1929) with the 445,000 units produced. The fledgling Japanese auto industry produced 24,000 units.
General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler accounted for 90% of U.S. production. The bulk of the remaining 10% went to the 'Middle Five' made up of Hudson, Nash, Packard, Studebaker, and Willys-Overland.
Japão passa a 1º produtor mundial
- 11 em 38 milhões, 28,5%
EUA desce para 2º lugar pela primeira vez, desde que passou a França em 1904.
- 8 milhões, 21%
Alemanha recuperou-se, com 3,9 milhões, 10%
França - 3,4 milhões e 9,7%
Inglaterra - 1,3 milhões, voltando ao nível dos anos 50, 3,4%
Japão continua em 1º, com 12,7 milhões e 26%
EUA - 11,2 milhões e 23%
Alemanha (3,9 milhões) e França (3,4 milhões) empatam com 10%
Inglaterra escorrega na participação, com 1,5 milhões e 3,2%
Produção mundial de 48,3 milhões, crescimento de 25% em relação a 1980
Emission control legislation for Southern California projected the phasing out of gasoline-fueled automobiles by the year 2010. They are to be replaced with electric vehicles and upgraded mass transit systems.
By the end of the 1980s, nearly 20% of all imported cars sold in the U.S. were 'captive' imports, that is, they were manufactured abroad but sold in the U.S. under domestic nameplates.
Over 11% of the manufacturing capacity for automobiles was owned by foreign competitors producing their 'imports' domestically for the U.S. market. Most experts agreed that the U.S. possessed greater manufacturing capacity for automobiles than what the market required.