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General Motors Electrification of the Automobile David Pugh 21 st July 2009 2020 1.1 billion vehicles Circle the earth 125 times 15% vehicle ownership Roughly Half of the known global oil reserves are used up North America Latin America West Europe and Africa Middle East

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General Motors Electrification of the Automobile

David Pugh

21st July 2009


20201.1 billion vehiclesCircle the earth 125 times15% vehicle ownership


Roughly Half of the known global oil reserves are used up

North America

Latin America

West Europe

and Africa

MiddleEast

East Europe

Far East

and Pacific

Produced

Reserves

Source: Comité professionel du pétrole


GM Environmental Strategy– removing the automobile from the energy and environmental equation

Reduced

Petroleum

Consumption

Improved

Vehicle Fuel Economy &

Emissions

Hydrogen

Fuel Cell Vehicles

Propulsion

System

Battery Electric Vehicles (E-REV)

Alternative Fuel Vehicles

IC Engine and

Transmission

Improvements

Time

Fuel

Infrastructure

Petroleum

(Conventional & Alternative Sources, CNG)

Bio Fuels

(Ethanol E85, Biogas, Biodiesel)

-

Electricity

Hydrogen

4


GM offering a range of technologies – not one “solution”

20082009201020112012201320142015

Conventional Fuel (petrol/diesel)

FlexFuel

EVs

Fuel Cell


Multiple advantages with E85 in near-term

Relatively inexpensive

CO2 emissions reductions

Improved Energy security

and independence

Stimulate growth

in agriculture

Simple for

customer

Ethanol

benefits

Easy for producers and distributors

Greater benefits from

2nd generation biofuels

Cost-effective vehicle

technology


Ethanol : potential to reduce CO2 emissions from well to wheel up to 70%

200

180

160

Note: Ethanol = 100%

140

120

100

WTW GHG Emissions [g CO2eq/km]

80

60

40

20

0

Gasoline

Diesel

Bio-Diesel

(FAME)

CNG (pipeline

CBG

Ethanol

Ethanol

Ethanol

Ethanol

(Sugarcane)

(wheat,

NGGT+

CHP)

(sugar

beet)

4tkm)

(municipal

(wheat straw,

waste)

lignocellulose

CNGCompressed Natural Gas

CBG Compressed Bio-Gas

CHPCombined Heat and Power

NG GTNatural Gas Turbine

- IOGEN)

Source: EUCAR-JRC-CONCAWE Joint WTW-Study, Update 2006


Overcoming range anxiety – Electric Vehicles

  • Many technologies available to reduce CO2 emissions on a well-to-wheel basis but the challenge is always refuelling infrastructure.

    • fuel providers have always been reluctant to make early investments before significant volumes of vehicles are on the road

    • Consumer won’t buy the vehicles unless infrastructure is widely available

  • From EV-1, we learned that:

    • Consumers don’t want to take the risk of being stranded

    • Consumers don’t want to wait for a ubiquitous refuelling infrastructure

    • Consumers don’t want to have own/rent second vehicle for longer trips

  • In short, most consumers won’t make sacrifices for a low carbon car

8


Successfully Establishing E-REV as a New Propulsion Category

PHEV : Plug-in hybrid primary fuel: petroleum

EV : Electric vehicle Limited vehicle range

EREV : Extended-range electric vehicle practical zero emission vehicle


The Vauxhall Ampera

  • E-REV – Extended Range Electric Vehicle

  • Electrically driven (NOT a hybrid)

  • 40 Miles of pure battery range – average persons commute in the UK

  • On board generator to recharge the battery when depleted – overcome range anxiety

  • On board generator takes the form of an conventional internal combustion engine which can deliver several hundred miles of extended range

  • Vehicle emits below 40g CO2/km based on the current EU test cycle.

  • Meets all EU safety standards

  • Due to arrive as RHD in UK by 2012


  • Lithium Ion Battery

  • •16 kWh (8kWh usable)

  • •High energy, high power in minimized package

  • •Charged in approx. 3 hours @ 230 Volts,

  • about 8 hours @ 110 Volts

  • •10 years life/240,000 km


E-Rev meets consumers needs

In Europe over 75% of customers commute 60 Kmor less daily

29%

22%

17%

10%

8%

7%

5%

3%

2 - 10

12 - 20

22 - 30

32 - 40

42 - 50

52 - 60

62 - 70

>70

miles

12


Enablers for early commercialisation

  • Strategic Policy required to send complementary signals to vehicle producers, consumers, infrastructure providers

  • Enablers for vehicle producers:

    • support for continued development via “Super Credits” in EU CO2 legislation for cars under 50g CO2/km

    • Support for continued research to improve battery technology and reduce costs

  • Consumers;

    • Rebate at purchase to offset initial premium costs

    • Free access to city parking, recharging bays

    • Accelerated depreciation to encourage company car fleets.

  • Infrastructure providers:

    • Roll-out plan for recharging infrastructure – enable private home, multi resident, shopping centres charging

    • Building standards revised to require easily accessible recharging points

    • Initial volume to use off-peak power

    • Match growth on demand to additional renewable energy capacity


In the future, E85 will continue to play an important role with electric mobility

  • GM’s Extended Range Electric Vehicle Technology

    • Electric Drive vehicle with on-board generator to provide full driving range

    • E-85 capable


The future – Hydrogen fuel cell

  • Part of GM’s fleet of over 100 4th generation Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

  • The World’s largest FCEV market test

  • Gain experience from “real world” driving

  • Get customer feedbackon vehicle and refueling


GM HydroGen 4

  • Fourth generation fuel cellpropulsion system withimproved every-day suitability,performance and durability

  • Capable to start and operatein sub-freezing temperatures

  • Acceleration (0-100 km/h): 12 s

  • Top speed: 160 km/h

  • Customer friendly refueling

  • Fuel: 4.2 kg CGH2 (700 bar)

  • Fast fill: 3 min.

  • Range: 320 km


GM Alternative Technologies available in Europe

E-85

CNG

  • Saab 9-3 BioPower 1.8t (Sport Saloon, Sport Wagon & Convertible)

  • Saab 9-5 BioPower 2.0t & 2.3t (Saloon & Estate)

Zafira 1.6 CNG

Combo 1.6 CNG

E-REV (2011-2012)

LPG: For each model, Chevrolet offers at least 1 LPG version: Matiz / Aveo/ Lacetti / Nubira / Epica / Captiva

Opel/Vauxhall Ampera

Chevrolet Volt


Thank you - any questions ?


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