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Revision. February 24 th. Before We Get Started…. Neighbor Time!. Get in a big circle and tell the class: Your name Your favorite superhero Your literature review topic 1 good thing you are getting out of the process of writing your 1.1

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Revision

Revision

February 24th


Before we get started

Before We Get Started…


Neighbor time

Neighbor Time!

  • Get in a big circle and tell the class:

  • Your name

  • Your favorite superhero

  • Your literature review topic

  • 1 good thing you are getting out of the process of writing your 1.1

  • Your favorite city and 2 reasons why it is your favorite

  • The last person’s favorite superhero and 1 reason they like their favorite city (and name the city)


Why are we here

Why are we here?

  • The literature review is good to understand, even if you don’t plan on ever writing one again

  • Synthesizing the research is KEY and will help you write the argumentative paper

  • You have ALL this research done for the argumentative paper

  • The (pyramid) structure of this paper is a GREAT way to write any paper (we’ll get to this near the end of the prez today)


The 1 2

The 1.2

  • To complete this assignment, you will expand and revise the first draft of your literature review, draft 1.1.

  • Remember, your literature review must do more than just summarize the information.

  • A literature review discusses previously published information about a particular topic or issue in order to accomplish the following:

    • show readers what has been written about a topic, so that they can understand a particular development of ideas concerning that topic

    • explain to readers why certain ideas or theories concerning a topic are being challenged or re-examined by researchers

    • help readers understand more about why a topic is being examined by a researcher in a particular way


The 1 21

The 1.2

  • Your review will discuss at least eight sources, all of which must be located via the TTU library databases and online catalog.

  • Minimum word count: 1500 words

  • Format: MLA style for internal citations and works cited.


Revision

So…

  • Did you write a research paper?

  • Did you write an argumentative paper?

  • Did you just summarize your sources?

  • Did you choose sources only from one author/authorial source?


You want this

You want this…

According to Jenifer Tidwell, in Designing Interfaces, “everyone who uses a tool, software or otherwise, has a reason to use it” (Tidwell 3). Lowgren and Stolterman also recognize that “all design work results in a product of some kind” (Lowgren and Stolterman 1). Regardless of the reason, information availability needs to match desirability (Morville 44). Information also needs to be clearly defined in order to support productive and valued interfaces (Stibel 63). Peter Morville'sAmbient Findabilityargues that information in digital realms needs to be as available as information in physical ones and people use similar behaviors to navigate both (Morville 30). Morville also addresses the large range of different users that interact with technology: “the significant (and growing) numbers of people with disabilities from those with limited vision to those suffering from Alzheimer's face greater wayfinding challenges and risks than most” (29). Jenkins et al. suggest that discerning between interaction and interface design is important, but this is the only text to separate and define the two. Lowgren and Stolterman attend to interaction design more than to interface design; placing emphasis on a user-centered design model in both interface and human-computer interaction and arguing that effective computer and web design practice focuses on interface interaction (Lowgren and Stolterman)


So you really want

So you really want…

  • A comparison of sources

    • Where are they the same? Where do they overlap? Where are they saying the same things?

  • A contrasting of sources

    • Do any researchers say anything really unique?

    • Is any of the research really strange, really good, or really foundational (important to all)?

  • A synthesis of the sources

    • What overlaps or individual characteristics of the sources are fundamental to the topic?

    • What themes or sub-themes are important to the topic?


You don t want

You don’t want…

  • Each paragraph only discussing 1 or 2 researchers

  • An essay that supports one side of an argument

  • An essay that focuses on a topic instead of on the sources published on that topic

  • An extended BA4


The introduction

The Introduction


Major components

Major Components

  • Context

    • Why is this topic important?

    • What is the context of this topic?

      • i.e. What is the contention surrounding this issue?

      • i.e. Why is this topic popular right now? With whom?

    • Why should we, the readers, care about this topic?


Lit review intro

Lit Review Intro

  • You can use 1-4 sentences to convey critical info in introduction

  • Thesis:

    • e.g. A hot-button issue for many, the topic of childhood obesity has received a lot of attention recently and has seen a lot of research published, but with all of the material focusing on only three major issues: the effects of parenting and of entertainment media on childhood obesity, and the long-term effects of childhood obesity.

  • Scope:

    • e.g. Specifically, the field of psychology has taken a particular interest in the topic and is responsible for a majority of the new research coming out, investigating the causes and effects of childhood obesity.

  • Purpose:

    • e.g. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight major themes and discrepancies in the literature on childhood obesity published in the field of psychology over the past 11 years.


The body paragraphs

The Body Paragraphs


Basic requirements

Basic Requirements

  • >3 body paragraphs

  • A topic sentence for each paragraph

  • A closing sentence for each paragraph

    • Relate back to topic sentence

    • Transition to next topic

  • A sub-topic by sub-topic comparison of the research

    • e.g. Researcher’s A, D, and E think that childhood obesity is a direct result of poor parenting. While Researchers B and C feel that the quality of parenting is certainly an influence, they feel that poor parenting has little to no effect on childhood obesity while good parenting, on the other hand, has a significant effect. For Researcher F, poor parenting is not only a cause of childhood obesity, but actually made worse as a result of the child’s condition as the parent begins to…


The conclusion

The Conclusion


Lit review conc

Lit Review Conc.

  • Basically, intro in reverse

    • Readdress (but do not repeat verbatim) thesis, scope, and purpose

  • Instead of “context” add possible future

    • Future research

      • Make a call for it!

      • What kinds of research?

      • Where is there a gap in the research?

    • Speculation on relationship between topic and field

      • Influence? No influence?

      • Is research from this particular field important to continue? Does it have any effect on the issue?


Research gap

Research Gap?

  • A research gap is a theme that is not covered in the literature

  • For example,

    • While the literature on childhood obesity discusses three very important issues—the effects of parenting and of entertainment media on childhood obesity, and the long-term effects of childhood obesity—it does not discuss anything about effects of parents’ habits on children. Considering the debate over whether nature is more or less influential on children than nurture, this seems like a good direction to take future research. Another potential research topic that is not covered in the literature in this review is the role of the school environment on childhood obesity: issues concerning school lunches, to vending machine choices, and even recess would certainly fall into this category. Since all children are required by law to attend school, and since most children spend a significant portion of their time at school, the effects of this environment on children’s eating habits is potentially significant.


Lastly

Lastly…


Don t forget mla citations

Don’t forget MLA citations!!!!

  • Title Works Cited…yep, you got it…Works Cited

  • Order sources alphabetically

  • Easybib.com is a great resource for making Works Cited citations

  • In-text citations are required. Don’t forget to include these!


Useful revision tactics

Useful Revision Tactics


First

First,

  • Make sure your focus is on the literature and major themes—aka “overlaps”—in the literature and NOT on the topic itself

  • Next, try a “known-new” strategy

  • Then restructure or refine the structure of your lit review: top-down or bottom-up

    • Your literature should be built like a pyramid with the thesis at the topic and the sub-themes building the base


Try this

Try this…

  • Writing/revising each sentence with a “known/new” strategy

    • e.g. Researcher’s A, D, and E think that childhood obesity is a direct result of poor parenting. While Researchers B and C feel that the quality of parenting is certainly an influence, they feel that poor parenting has little to no effect on childhood obesity [known]while good parenting, on the other hand, has a significant effect [new]. For Researcher F, poor parenting is not only a cause of childhood obesity [known], but actually made worse as a result of the child’s condition as the parent begins to [new]…


Another example

Another example:

According to Jenifer Tidwell, in Designing Interfaces, “everyone who uses a tool, software or otherwise, has a reason to use it” (Tidwell 3). Lowgren and Stoltermanalso recognize that “all design work results in a product of some kind” (Lowgren and Stolterman 1). Regardless of the reason, information availability needs to match desirability (Morville 44). Information also needs to be clearly defned in order to support productive and valued interfaces (Stibel 63). Peter Morville'sAmbient Findabilityargues that information in digital realms needs to be as available as information in physical ones and people use similar behaviors to navigate both (Morville 30). Morvillealso addresses the large range of different users that interact with technology: “the signifcant (and growing) numbers of people with disabilities from those with limited vision to those suffering from Alzheimer's face greater wayfndingchallenges and risks than most” (29). Jenkins et al. suggest that discerning between interaction and interface design is important, but this is the only text to separate and defne the two. Lowgren and Stolterman attend to interaction designmore than to interface design;placing emphasis on a user-centered design model in both interface and human-computer interaction and arguing that effective computer and web design practice focuses on interface interaction (Lowgren and Stolterman)


Stuck on structure

Stuck on Structure?

  • There will be bloodlots of rewriting

  • Look at your BA4 and your in-text notes to compare, contrast, and synthesize literature


You can work top down

You can work Top-Down

  • Come up with your thesis

  • Come up with your 2/3/4 themes (topic sentences)

  • Come up with at least 3 sub-themes for each primary theme


Or work bottom up

Or work Bottom-Up

  • Group your various sub-themes

  • Find themes for each grouping (aim for 2-4)

  • (you may need to go back and find more sub-themes, remove a few possible, maybe even switch some from one group to another)

  • Construct your thesis topic around these themes


Revision

Quiz

  • What is a “proposition”?

  • What is one way to back up a proposition?

  • What does the term “ideology” mean?


Intro to argument

Intro to Argument

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFQFB5YpDZE


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