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1. Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 1: President and Vice President
Section 2: Electing the President
Section 3: The Cabinet
Section 4: The Executive Office
2. *Duties of the President* To enforce Laws
3. *Duties of the President* Party Leader
Head of State
Commander in Chief
4. Party Leader The President is the leader of his political party. He is the leading democrat or republican in the country and his party looks to him for leadership.
5. Head of State As head of state, the president represents the nation and performs many ceremonial roles.
Ex. Serving as hosts to leaders from other countries, throwing out the first ball at baseball games, lighting the national Christmas tree, etc.
6. Commander in Chief The president is the civilian leader of all the armed forces. He shares with Congress the ability to make war.
7. Chief Legislator Congress expects the executive branch to propose legislation (introduce bills) it wishes to see enacted.
8. Economic Planner The federal government has the responsibility to promote high employment, production, and purchasing power. The president also has the duty to prepare the federal budget every year.
9. Chief Diplomat The president directs the foreign policy of the U.S., making key decisions about the relations the U.S. has with other countries in the world.
10. Chief Executive As the nation’s chief executive, the president sees that the laws of Congress are carried out.
11. *President Term and Salary* *Twenty-second Amendment
Four / two
*Possibility that a president can serve up to 10 years
Plus a 132 room mansion
Swimming pool, bowling alley, movie theater, tennis courts, private chef
12. *Salary and benefits* 3 private planes
13 private helicopters
Pension of 148,400 a year
13. *Presidential qualifications 1. Natural-born citizen of USA
2. 35 years old
3. 14 years resident before taking office
14. Presidential Succession Succession Act of 1947
Speaker of the House
President Pro Tempore of the Senate
Secretary of State
Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of Defense
Attorney General 8. Secretary of the Interior
9. Secretary of Agriculture
10. Secretary of Commerce
11. Secretary of Labor
Continuing on with cabinet members in order of creation
15. *The Executive Branch The powers of the Executive Branch greatly expanded under Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Over the years the power of the President has increased as government has grown larger.
The President is the nation’s “chief executive” and is responsible for everything that is done by the different groups who work in the Executive branch.
16. Organization of Executive Branch *There are many departments and agencies within the executive branch.
Final responsibility for all that happens in the Executive Branch rests with the President.
17. Electing a President *The popular vote is when the people cast their votes for a President and Vice-president.
*They are actually casting votes for electors in their states.
*These electors then cast the formal vote for President and Vice-President.
*The Electoral College meets in December after the popular election in November.
18. What is the Electoral College? *The Electoral College is a group of electors who vote for President and Vice-President.
A popular vote for the Democratic President is actually a vote for the Democratic elector chosen in that state—and the same is true for a popular vote for a Republican.
*Each state has the same number of electors as it has Senators and Representatives.
19. Electoral College continued There are a total of 538 Electoral votes.
A candidate needs 270 Electoral votes to win the election.
All the votes for a state are given to the candidate who wins the state’s popular vote (except Maine and Nebraska)
The Electoral system was set up by the Constitution.
20. Electoral College Why?--- our framers did not trust the general population to make an educated decision about the president.
In 1789 there was no popular vote and the candidate with the second most electoral votes became vice president.
They changed this in 1804 with the 12th amendment.
21. Electoral College Today *People do not vote directly for president and vice president. They vote for electors in each state. The electoral college still has the same number of electors per state as there are senators and representatives. To be elected a candidate must win at least 270 of the 538 possible votes.
22. Presidential Election 22nd Amendment---1951—set a limit of two terms as President----this was a result of F.D.R. breaking a long time precedent.
10 years is the maximum a President can serve.
23. Duties—Commander in Chief *As the leader of the Executive Branch of the Government—the President is the commander in chief of the armed forces.
*This is because our forefathers wanted to have a civilian leader of the armed forces
The President is always in close touch with the country’s military leaders
24. *Diplomatic Duties* *As Chief Diplomat the President is responsible for maintaining friendly relationships with other nations around the world.
The president appoints ambassadors to represent the U.S. in foreign countries.
The president also welcomes leaders of other foreign countries to the U.S. and visits other world leaders in their countries
25. Legislative Duties *As chief legislator---all bills passed by Congress must be sent to the President to be signed or vetoed.
The president can also suggest new laws to Congress.
Once each year the President addresses Congress with a “state of the union” message.
26. Legislative Duties Continued *The President must prepare a budget for the nation each year.
*The budget is given to Congress.
The members of Congress study it carefully.
*When it is approved, the President uses this budget for running the government.
27. *Money* How does the U.S. receive money to operate the government?
Individual and Business Income Tax
Social Insurance Taxes and Contributions
Estate and Gift Taxes
Deposits and Earnings from Federal Reserve Banks.
28. *President as Political Leader *When a candidate runs for President, he or she has already chosen a plan for running the government.
This plan is made up by the candidate’s political party.
*When elected, the President is expected to follow the party’s plan and try to get Congress to put the plan into action.
The President also appoints people from the political party to important jobs to help run the nation.
29. *President as World Leader *The President of the U.S. is a world leader whose actions are followed and studied by people of other countries and by their leaders.
30. Presidential Vacancy 4 Presidents have died in office---William Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren Harding, and F.D. Roosevelt
4 Presidents have been assassinated---William McKinley, Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, and John F. Kennedy
1 President has resigned---Richard Nixon
31. *People Who Advise the President* The duties of the President have grown and as a result he now has thousands of people who help in some way.
The Cabinet, The Executive Office, The National Security Council, The Office of Management and Budget, and the Council of Economic Advisers are all examples of groups who advise the President.
32. The President’s Cabinet *The President’s Cabinet is made up of the heads of the 15 Executive Departments.
*The President appoints cabinet members, but they must be approved by the Senate.
Cabinet members report on what is happening in their departments.
The Vice President and the heads of some of the agencies of the Executive Office attend these meetings.
33. The Cabinet
*The tradition of the Cabinet dates back to the beginnings of the Presidency itself. Established in Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution, the Cabinet's role is to advise the President on any subject he may require relating to the duties of each member's respective office.
34. The Cabinet The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments — the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs, as well as the Attorney General
35. Characteristics of Most Cabinet Members College Graduates
Leaders in the fields of business, industry, law, science, and education
36. How Cabinet Members are Nominated President elect draws up a list of candidates
Campaign staffers meet with candidates to discuss issues
Sometimes names are leaked to the public to get there reaction
37. How Appointments are Confirmed Senate holds confirmation hearings
Nominees appear before senate
Senate usually cooperates
38. Members Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden
Department of State Secretary Hillary Rodham Clinton
Department of the Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner
Department of Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates
Department of Justice Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr.
Department of the Interior Secretary Kenneth L. Salazar
39. Members Department of Agriculture Secretary Thomas J. Vilsack
Department of Commerce Secretary Gary F. Locke
Department of Labor Secretary Hilda L. Solis
Department of Health and Human Services Secretary-designate: Kathleen Sebelius
Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun L.S. Donovan
40. Members Department of Transportation Secretary Raymond L. LaHood
Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu
Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan
Department of Veterans Affairs Secretary Eric K. Shinseki
Department of Homeland Security Secretary Janet A. Napolitano
41. *The following positions have the status of Cabinet-rank
Council of Economic Advisers----Chair Christina Romer
Environmental Protection Agency---Administrator Lisa P. Jackson
Office of Management & Budget--Director Peter R. Orszag
United States Trade Representative--Ambassador Ronald Kirk
United States Ambassador to the United Nations
Ambassador Susan Rice
White House Chief of Staff----Rahm I. Emanuel
42. *The Executive Office* *The Executive Office is made up of many advisers and aides.
There are also many agencies in the Executive Office.
*These individuals and agencies help the President to carry out the duties of the office.
They manage the day-to-day work and advise the President.
Most of the people in the Executive Office work in the White House or in nearby buildings.
43. The Executive Office * The Executive Office of the President includes The White House Office, Office of Management and Budget, National Security Council, and the 15 cabinet departments.
Nearly 2,000 people work in the EOP (Executive Office of the President)
44. *The White House Office* *The people closest to the President are in the White House Office.
*These people often are long time supporters of the President.
The press secretary supplies White House news to the press.
Another assistant helps write the President’s speeches.
45. The White House Office *The four closest people to the president are:
*Chief of Staff
*White House Council
*Assistant for Legislative Affairs
46. The President’s Inner Circle Member: Chief of Staff
Gathers information and provides advise about key policies
Advises on political issues facing the president
Enforces orders from the president
47. The President’s Inner Circle Member: White House Council
Advises president on legal consequences of his policy decisions
48. The President’s Inner Circle Member: Assistant for Legislative Affairs
Works directly with members of Congress
Advises president about reaction to white house decisions
Works to convince lawmakers to gain support for presidential programs
49. The President’s Inner Circle Member: Press Secretary and Staff
Handles press relations
Sets up press conferences
Sets up press conferences and issues public statements in the president’s name
50. Chief of Staff Gathers information and provides advice about key policy and political issues facing the president
Enforces directives from the president
Decides which people and information gain access to the president
51. White House Council– advises the president on the legal consequences of his policy decisions
Press Secretary and staff– handles the president’s relations with the White House---sets up press conferences---issues public statements in the presidents name
52. Assistant for Legislative Affairs– works directly with members of Congress--- advises the president about reactions to White House decisions--- lobbies lawmakers to gain support for presidential programs
53. The White Office continued The President also has a personal doctor.
The White House Counsel gives the President legal advice about policy decisions.
The White House Office is led by the President’s Chief of Staff.
54. *National Security Council* The National Security Council advises the President.
It is concerned with military and foreign policy.
The Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.) works under this council.
The CIA’s job is to gather information about the country’s security.
The President, Vice President, The Secretaries of State and Defense, and the head of the CIA are on the National Security Council.
55. Joint Chiefs of Staff *Also advising the president are the Joint Chiefs of Staff---this is made up of the country’s top 5 military officers—they are:
*The Army chief of staff
*The Air Force chief of staff
*The Marine Corps commandant
*The chief of Naval Operations
*The chairman of the joint chiefs of staff
56. The Office of Management and Budget *The O.M.B. is in charge of preparing the federal budget.
*The budget is prepared yearly and lists all the money (income) that is expected and the ways it will be spent by the government.
Congress passes the budget
OMB also makes suggestions to the President on how to affectively use the budget
57. Council of Economic Advisers *The President gets information about the nation’s economy from the council of Economic Advisers.
This small groups reports to the President about money matters and also suggests needed programs.
The President uses this information to report to Congress and the American people about our economy.
58. Council on Environmental Quality *The condition of the environment is one of the President’s responsibilities.
Clean water, clean air, and careful use of natural resources are controlled by the government.
Other Councils----Several other councils inform the President about foreign trade, labor matters, research, etc.
59. Powers of the president Formal:
Commander in Chief
Appoints with Senate consent
Conducts foreign policy
Judicial powers to appoint federal judges
“faithfully execute” laws
Give “State of the Union” address
Call Congress into special session Informal--not in Constitution
Personal exercise of power
Immediate needs of the nation
Mandate by the people