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PERSON-ENVIRONMENT AND AGING. What is it?. Dynamic, interactive system Person and environment have to be studied jointly A person’s behaviour is a function of both the person and their environment – especially the person’s perception of their environment. Competence and environmental press.

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Presentation Transcript
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Dynamic, interactive system
  • Person and environment have to be studied jointly
  • A person’s behaviour is a function of both the person and their environment – especially the person’s perception of their environment
competence and environmental press
Competence and environmental press
  • Competence: best functional capacity of an individual

Measured in five areas:

  • Biological health
  • Sensory-perceptual functioning
  • Motor skills
  • Cognitive skills
  • Ego strength
competence and environmental press1
Competence and environmental press
  • Environmental press: demands placed by the environment on each individual
  • The demands can be:
  • Physical
  • Interpersonal
  • Social
lawton and nahemov s model
Lawton and Nahemov’s model
  • The less competent a person is, the more impact the environment has
kahana s congruence model
Kahana’s Congruence Model
  • People search for environments that best meet their needs
  • Environments vary in their ability to meet different people’s needs and demands
  • Congruence is especially important when options are limited
  • This model is helpful in assessing long-term care facilities
stress and coping theory
Stress and Coping Theory
  • Older adults’ adaptation to the environment depends on
  • Their perception of environmental stress and
  • Their attempts to cope
  • Social systems and institutions may buffer the effects of stress
loss continuum concept
Loss-Continuum Concept
  • Aging seen as a progressive series of losses that reduces one’s social participation
  • Therefore, home and neighbourhood become more important
  • Very important to help individuals maintain competence and independence
  • This model is more a practical guide and not a theory
concept of everyday competence
Concept of Everyday Competence
  • Ability to perform behaviours essential for independent living:
  • Physical
  • Psychological
  • Social
willis model of everyday competence
Willis Model of Everyday Competence
  • Antecedents: individual (e.g. health, cognitive status) and sociocultural (e.g. social policy, health care policy)
  • Components: intraindividual (how a person experiences their health, cognition) and contextual (how a particular policy is implemented in each case)
  • Mechanisms: variables that can affect expression of competence, e.g. personal perception of self-competence or of control
  • Outcomes: primarily physical and psychological well-being, the basic components of successful aging
what is optimal aging
What Is Optimal Aging?
  • Avoiding disease
  • Engaged in life (as opposed to withdrawal)
  • Good cognitive and physical functioning
  • The last two more important: many seniors with diseases age successfully
  • Important: dignity and independence
strategies
Strategies
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Cognitive stimulation
  • Positive, optimistic outlook
  • Social network
  • Healthy finances
  • Importance of health promotion programs adapted to all groups (SES, ethnicity, etc)
  • Four levels of preventive intervention (see text)
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