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William Kim Science Research – Period 4 Mrs. Flanagan. Polyphenols and Aging. Need. Figure 1: Age Related Changes in Motor Skills and Plasticity . Knowledge Base. http://www.mayday-info.dk/715.0.html. Knowledge Base. http://shirleywho.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/c-elegans_esa.jpg.

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Polyphenols and Aging

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William kim science research period 4 mrs flanagan

William Kim

Science Research – Period 4

Mrs. Flanagan

Polyphenols and Aging

Polyphenols and aging


Figure 1: Age Related Changes in Motor Skills and Plasticity

Knowledge base

Knowledge Base


Knowledge base1

Knowledge Base



Knowledge base2

Knowledge Base


Knowledge base3

Knowledge Base


Polyphenols and aging

Literature Review

Fig. 2Blueberry polyphenols extend lifespan in strains of C. elegans.

Wilson et. al. 2006

Literature review

Literature Review

Figure 3: Blueberry polyphenols slow decline of pharynx contraction in C. elegans.

Wilson et. al. 2006

Literature review1

Literature Review

Figure 4: Mean lifespan of different genotypes of C. elegans

Literature review2

Literature Review

  • James Joseph (2007-2009)

  • Tested and still testing fruit polyphenols and their effects on aging and the brain of mice

  • Tested effects of blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, plum juice, and other berry fruits

Polyphenols and aging


Therefore the purpose of this experiment is to test the ability of fruit polyphenols in the prolonging of lifespanin C. elegans.


Null Hypothesis: The blueberries, etc. will have no effect in prolonging the lifespan of C. elegans.

Alternate Hypothesis: The blueberries, etc. will have a significant effect in prolonging the lifespan of C. elegans.

Polyphenols and aging

Polyphenols and Aging Methodology

Caenorhabditis elegans

Short lifespan of about 2-3 weeks, rapid generation time, and experiemental flexibilty

Control Medium

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude blueberry extract (Vaccinium angustifolium)

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude blackberry extract

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude strawberry extract

Sample Size = 5

Medium + Fed crude Plum extract

Sample Size = 5


Average pumping rate of pharynx contraction is recorded with the use of Motic Plus Camera attached to a stereomicroscope.

Statistical Analysis

Protocols for measurement

Protocols for Measurement

  • Commercially prepared single strength wild blueberry juice (Vaccinium angustifolium) is applied to a preconditioned C18 Column

  • C18 column is washed with water to remove fructose, glucose, and organic acids of blueberries, then with 100% methanol to obtain the total polyphenolic fraction


Protocols for measurement1

Protocols for Measurement

  • Fruit polyphenol extracts is added to NGM agar plates of C. elegans on the first day of the lifespan assay

  • Lifespan scoring is initiated after hermaphrodites complete their final larval molt, on the first day of adulthood

  • Pharynx pumping rates are measured on days 4, 6, 8, and 10 of C. elegans adulthood

Protocols for measurement2

Protocols for Measurement

  • Pharynx contraction rate recorded with Motic Plus camera attached to a stereomicroscope

  • Pumps per minute measured




  • Motic Plus with Stereomicroscope available in lab for pharynx contraction observation

  • Fruit polyphenols are easily obtainable

  • C. elegans are easily obtainable and culturable



Total Price: $590.95



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“Antioxidants.” McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology. McGraw-Hill, 2001.

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Joseph, James. "ARS Project: The effects of walnuts on age related changes in neuroprotection, inflammatory signaling and behavior (414597)." <http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=414597>.

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Scalbert, Augustin, Johnson, Ian T., and Saltmarsh, Mike. “Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (2005): 215S-7S.

“Types of contractions.” Muscle Physiology. (2006). University of California. 31 May 2006. < http://muscle.ucsd.edu/musintro/contractions.shtml>

USDA/Agricultural Research Service. "Adding Walnuts To Good Diet May Help Older People Improve Motor And Behavioral Skills." ScienceDaily 25 April 2009. 5 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2009/04/090419201207.htm>.

“What Is an Antioxidant?.” American Dietetic Association. (2006). 14 Sept. 2006. <http:/www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/home_9660_ENU_HTML.htm>.

Wilson, Mark A., Shukitt-Hale, Barbara, Kalt, Wilhemina, Ingram, Donald K., Joseph, James A., and Wolkow, Catherine A. “Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditiselegans.” Aging Cell. 5 (2006): 59-68.

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