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Neighborhoods & Communities. Introduction to Psychology Virginia Union University. Neighborhoods & Communities. What kind of neighborhood have you lived in? Urban, suburban or rural? Racially mixed or racially segregated?

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Neighborhoods communities

Neighborhoods & Communities

Introduction to Psychology

Virginia Union University


Neighborhoods communities1
Neighborhoods & Communities

  • What kind of neighborhood have you lived in?

    • Urban, suburban or rural?

    • Racially mixed or racially segregated?

    • Available resources (i.e. parks, stores, positive social outlets for kids, clean streets, etc.) or non?


Neighborhoods communities2
Neighborhoods & Communities

  • Neighborhood

    • Definitions vary

      • Can be defined politically, socially or physically

      • African Americans more likely to define neighborhood based on social relationships rather than location

  • Community

    • The local context in which people live

      • Defined by networks of associations that bind individuals, families, institutions and organizations


Where african americans live
Where African Americans Live

  • According to the 2000 U.S. Census

    • African Americans comprised 12.9% of the total U.S. population

      • 86.5% lived in metropolitan communities

      • Approximately 53% lived in central cities and an increasing number living in suburbs

  • Although racial residential segregation declined for African Americans between 1980 and 2000, African Americans remain the most segregated ethnic group in the United States

  • Concentration of poverty in many urban predominantly African American communities is declining


Importance of neighborhoods communities
Importance of Neighborhoods & Communities

  • Impact of neighborhood & community factors on the well-being of African Americans

    • Neighborhood racial composition predicts health outcomes/mortality rates


Theoretical perspectives on communities
Theoretical Perspectives on Communities

  • Social Disorganization Theory

    • Criminality linked to limitations in community’s social resources and capacity to meet the needs of its residents

    • Factors such as limited community-level economic resources, ethnic heterogeneity, and high rates of residential mobility reflect community disorganization

    • Relationship between community violence & resident’s sense of collective efficacy

      • Resident’s belief that they can have an impact on behavior within their communities


Theoretical perspectives on communities1
Theoretical Perspectives on Communities

  • Broken Windows Theory

    • Crime is more likely to occur in areas where the physical environment is disorganized and unkempt

    • Disorganization of the physical space in the neighborhood sends a message to potential criminals that residents do not care about their neighborhood

    • Neighborhood crime more influenced by resident collective efficacy than upkeep of the physical environment


Crips bloods made in america
Crips & Bloods: Made in America

  • Identify neighborhood & community variables that contributed to the development and sustained activity of the Crips and Bloods


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