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To Address Underage Drinking. Communities working with the judiciary. To obtain copies of today's program materials please visit: http://www.udetc.org/audioconf_judicialpast.asp. Panelists. Dr. Ted Miller

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To address underage drinking l.jpg

To Address Underage Drinking

Communities working with the judiciary

To obtain copies of today's

program materials please visit:

http://www.udetc.org/audioconf_judicialpast.asp


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Panelists

Dr. Ted Miller

Principle Research ScientistPacific Institute for Research and EvaluationCalverton, Maryland

Ms. Sheila R. Nesbitt

Chief of Training and Technical Assistance

Minnesota Institute of Public Health

Mounds View, Minnesota

Mr. Kevin P. Richard, MA

Director of Juvenile Services/Specialty Courts

Rhode Island Family Court.

Providence, Rhode Island


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Dr. Ted Miller

Principle Research ScientistPacific Institute for Research and Evaluation

Calverton, Maryland




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Really Big Business

13.6 million underage customers in 2007

$1,820 in annual alcohol sales per kid who drinks illegally


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Underage Drinkers Are Great Customers

Daily Drinks Per Drinker


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Booze Consumed

When BAC Will Be > .08


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The alcohol industry denies it markets to kids

  • But the signs are everywhere

  • Are alcopops for the martini crowd or the beer bellies?

  • Were the Budweiser frogs, the dinosaurs, or the clever dogs?










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A Devastating Tidal Wave of Alcohol-Related Harm Resulted Drinkers in 2007

  • 3170 deaths

  • 300 K DWI crashes

  • 540 K violent crimes

  • 1.2 million property crimes

  • 400 K risky sexual encounters

  • 100K alcohol poisonings & psychoses

  • 70 K kids in alcohol treatment


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DWI Deaths Drinkers in 2007


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Lowering MLDA from 21 to 18 would raise alcohol-involved suicide acts among 18 to 20 year olds by 27%


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Perpetrator AOD Involvement suicide acts among 18 to 20 year olds by 27%


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Crime: Surveys of Youth Custody & Youth in Adult Custody (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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Perp ETOH/Drug Involved, All Ages, Self-Report (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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Cost of Youth Crime (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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Beverages Involved, Crime, All Ages (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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40% of Medically Treated Assault Victims Are BAC-Positive (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)Victimization Is 7-10 Times As Likely When Someone Is Alcohol-Positive As When (S)he Is Sober


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% Youth Sex Alcohol Involved (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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The Costs are for Events Caused by Alcohol (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • 90% of alcohol-involved crashes

  • 50% of alcohol-involved crime & risky sex


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Underage Drinking Cost $68 B in 2007 (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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How can we make $68 B comprehensible? (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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A National Yardstick (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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Divide by a Sensible Exposure Measure (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • $5100 Per Underage Drinker

  • $2280 Per Youth Ages 14-20

  • $3.30 Per Illegal Drink


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Underage Drinking In the US Cost $68B in 2007 (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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Per Illegal Underage Drink (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)


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Fact sheets by state available (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

On web at www.iiaaonline.org/profiles.php

  • % of alcohol consumed by youth

  • Costs

    2007 update will be out shortly


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Journal of Studies on Alcohol (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)July 2006

  • Societal Costs of Underage Drinking

  • Ted Miller, David Levy, Rebecca Spicer & Dexter Taylor


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Summary (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Underage drinking is a big, profitable business

  • It causes $68 B in harm annually; more than $3/drink

  • Crimes account for >80% of the costs

  • Almost 40% of youth violence involves alcohol

  • In 18% of DWI deaths, underage drinkers were driving


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Underage Drinking (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)and Related Crimes

Ted R Miller, PhD

Principal Research Associate

Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation

410-381-1197

[email protected]


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Ms. Sheila Nesbitt (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

Chief of Training and Technical Assistance

Minnesota Institute of Public Health

Mounds View, Minnesota


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Zero Adult Provider (ZAP) (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Started in St. Paul in 1999.

  • Law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, probation, campus/community coalition.

  • Focus on identifying and charging adult providers.

  • Improve effectiveness of sanctions for underage consumers.


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ZAP Roadmap (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Know if and when underage drinking is happening

  • Identify and charge not only the underage drinkers, but more importantly, the illegal provider

  • Ensure consequences make a difference


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Growth of ZAP (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Currently 19 of 87 counties received EUDL funds.

  • Average 253% increase in adult provider arrests in first year of project.

  • PIRE case study released July 2009.

  • www.miph.org/projects/eudl


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Role of Judges (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Judges make great champions.

  • If a judges invites them, they will be there.

  • Can make things happen.

  • Respected voice for the issue.

  • Direct court scheduling and procedure, including probation.

  • Search warrants


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Considerations/Limitations (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Separate and distinct from Executive Branch (law enforcement).

  • Neutrality.

  • Not everything is within their control.


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How To Work with Judges (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • A judge from another district

  • Who in your community has a strong relationship?

  • Ask their opinion. Don’t tell them what to do.

  • Understand their philosophy.

  • Give them credit.


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Persuasive Arguments (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Change in domestic violence.

  • Costs of underage drinking.

  • Early intervention.

  • Role in prevention.


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Kevin P. Richard (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

Director of Juvenile Services/Specialty Courts

Rhode Island Family Court

Providence, Rhode Island


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The Rhode Island Family Court (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)Alcohol Calendar

Chief Judge Jeremiah S. Jeremiah, Jr.


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Beginnings (excludes 20% of crimes involving ETOH & heroin or cocaine)

  • Formation of the RI Alcohol Calendar began in 2007.

  • Several high profile cases involving underage drinking.

  • Although RI has a unified court system, there was a lack of uniformity throughout cities and towns in handling underage drinking. Additionally, reporting interventions and outcomes was insufficient.

  • Increasing awareness that family involvement is a necessary requirement for effective intervention.


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The Relationship between the Alcohol Calendar and Problem Solving Courts

  • Complimentary

  • Similar: voluntary, employ a range of incentives and sanctions; petitions will be dismissed if successful; focus on treatment; incorporates a team approach.

  • Different: The Alcohol Calendar is more diversionary in nature; shorter in duration (approximately 3 months); employs greater use of random breathalyzers/alcohol screens; less dependent on funding issues.

  • For juveniles on the Alcohol Calendar that demonstrate the need for more individualized interventions, cases can be referred to the Juvenile Drug Court for longer supervision and additional mental health services.


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Alcohol Use and HIV Among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders Solving Courts(Tolou-Shams, Conrad, Houck, & Brown)

  • Many juvenile offenders actively enrolled in a drug court program report continued heavy alcohol use.

  • Juvenile “drinkers” engage in more HIV/STI risk behaviors, such as unprotected sexual activity and using substances during sex.

  • Higher rates of sensation seeking among juvenile “drinkers” may also increase risk for other drug use (including cocaine), alcohol and marijuana relapse and recidivism.

  • Juvenile Drug Court programs may benefit from greater emphasis on specific alcohol-related interventions as well as integrated treatments that include content related to sexual and other co-occurring risk behaviors.


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Necessary Components Solving Courts

  • Judicial commitment

  • Cooperation from local towns and law enforcement. It was necessary in RI for the court to centralize interventions and supports.

  • Judicial staff: Judge, Courtroom support, and a case manager. Some technical support may be necessary for data entry.

  • Community service providers. RI placed a heavy focus on academic institutions and hospitals due to their capacity to provide a service, collect data, and produce measurable outcomes. All services are free to the families, and in some cases, incentives are available.


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Referral Process Solving Courts

  • Police departments make the commitment to file with the court system and participate with the program when appropriate.

  • Cases are screened through the RI Family Court Intake Department. alcohol charges or alcohol related incidents are referred to the Alcohol Calendar for an initial hearing. The Family Court issues summons/notices.

  • Exclusions: Because RI statutes are very specific for DWI charges these cases are referred to the traditional juvenile calendar of the drug court. Juveniles with an extensive Family Court record are excluded for the Alcohol Calendar.

  • At the initial hearing, a Family Court case worker meets with families (and attorneys) to provide a a description of the program and its objectives.

  • For families that opt out of the program, an arraignment and formal proceeding will follow. For families that enter the program conditions are set and referrals for services begin.


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Conditions/Agreement Solving Courts

  • Youth must refrain from using alcohol and drugs

  • Youth must be available day or night for random breathalyzers (administered by local police or court staff). Drug screens may also be employed.

  • Youth must abide by court curfew

  • Youth must attend school regularly, be on time and maintain an appropriate grade point average.

  • Youth must follow the lawful commands of his/her parents

  • Extra curricular activities may be revoked at the discretion of the court (and school officials). It is vital to ensure the court, school and parents are coordinating efforts at this level.


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Brief but Targeted Interventions Solving Courts

  • Reducing Youthful Dangerous Driving (RYDD) – Rhode Island Hospital

    • Targets high risk behaviors

  • Teen Alcohol Prevention Program (TAP2)- Brown University’s Center for Alcohol and Addictions Studies (Anthony Spirito, PhD)

    • Targets family intervention


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RI Kids Count Solving Courts


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RI Statistics Solving Courts

According to 2007 Rhode Island Youth Risk Survey:

  • 28% of youth questioned rode in a vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking in the 30 days prior to the survey.

  • More than one third (36%) of the teen drivers who died in motor vehicle crashes between 2003 and 2007 had been drinking and 38% of teen passengers who died had also been drinking.


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Reducing Youthful Dangerous Driving (RYDD) Solving Courts

  • Program run by the Injury Prevention Center at Rhode Island Hospital.

  • Has collaborated with the courts since 2001.

  • Educational Program designed to prevent motor vehicle crashes and reduce high-risk driving and alcohol and other drug use among RI Youth.

  • Ages:16-20


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RYDD (cont.) Solving Courts

  • Referred youth are screened and given volunteer assignments that are completed within a four-week time period, totaling 20 hours.

  • Group Sessions: Youth collectively explore the link between substance abuse, high risk driving and motor vehicle crashes through facilitators, video, demonstrations, and essays.


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RYDD (cont.) Solving Courts

  • Volunteering in the Rhode Island Hospital Trauma Center.

  • Youth are assigned two weekend shifts.

  • Supervised by RYDD program staff.

  • Experience high intensity environment of emergencies often caused by vehicular accidents and/or substance related injuries.


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Brown University's Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies Solving CourtsBrief Family Counseling

  • Adolescents seen in the Family Court are also referred to Brown University’s Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies (CAAS) where they receive a brief family counseling session (the Family Check-Up) as part of a research study.


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Family Check-Up Solving Courts(Dishion & Kavanagh, 2003)

  • Based on Motivational Interviewing principles

  • GOAL: Enhance parent recognition of child risk factors

  • Motivate parents to take action – especially with regard to monitoring, limit-setting, and communication


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Two Sessions Solving Courts

  • The Family Check-Up is separated into two sessions:

    • 1st session- data is collected from self-report questionnaires and observational videotaped family interaction tasks

    • 2nd session- parent returns to receive feedback based on the data collected at the initial visit


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Parent Feedback Session Solving Courts

  • Review Family Assessment Data

  • Set goals – where would you like to improve?

  • Explore commitment to change

  • Explore barriers to change (Pros & Cons)

  • Support self-efficacy


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Family Check-up Study Solving Courts

  • A recently completed study of alcohol-positive adolescents seen in the Emergency Room at Rhode Island Hospital demonstrated that the Family Check-Up resulted in lower alcohol and marijuana use over a 12 month period compared to an individual motivational interview.


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New Family Check-up Study Solving Courts

  • A new grant to which families are currently being referred is testing whether meeting with the teenager with the alcohol- related event and a teenage sibling will result in better long term outcomes for both teens. Families may choose to take part in the research or simply receive brief family or individual counseling as a service.


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Recidivism (2007 – Present) Solving Courts

  • More longitudinal data is needed

  • N=85 (graduates)

  • Total number recidivist: 6

  • Number of juveniles with a subsequent alcohol charge: 0

  • Number of juveniles with a subsequent drug related charge: 1 (possession of marijuana)

  • Number of juveniles with a subsequent non-alcohol/drug charge: 5


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Questions Solving Courts


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Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation Solving Courts

Judicial-Probation Project

11720 Beltsville Drive, Suite 900

Calverton, MD 20705-3102

[email protected]

603-369-1766

http://www.udetc.org/judicial/judicialproject.asp


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Our Next Program Solving Courts

“Judges to Judges on Underage Drinking”

Wednesday, September 30, 2009, 3:00 - 4:15 pm

Eastern Time


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Join Us in Dallas! Solving CourtsAugust 13-14th

www.udetc.org


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